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Vd^''" SEPTEMBER, 1920 

Code? T^^cUcv- 



No. 3 




HISTORICAL 
MAGAZINE 




' fiDLISBED-BY 

THE MARYLAT^ HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



ISSUED QjUARTERLY 

lANNUAL SU55CIUPnON4iOO-SINGI£NlJMBEK%75cT^ 



BALTJMORE 



^_|^,y^''.-Cli«t Ifatter, April 21, 1817, >t tht PoitofBce, tt Baltimore, llBTkoid, 
under th* Act el AnpHt ti, ISIl. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZmS 

Vol. XV. SEPTEMBEK, 1920. No. 3. 



EDWIN WAMmW, UU-UiO 



In pursuance of the resolution adopted at a special meeting 
of the Maryland Historical Society on tlie 2d day of April, 
1920, the committee appointed to prepare and present a suit- 
able minute upon the loss which the Society has sustained by 
the death of our late President, Edwik Wabfibm), refq)ectfully 
submit the following: 

In the columns of the press and in other publications, em- 
phasis has been laid upon the many activities of our former 
President, Edwin Warfield, and upon the very unusual degree 
of success which he achieved. Doubtless little can be added in 
this memorial to what has already been said. It is our privi- 
lege, however, in lamenting the death of our late President, to 
record some of his notable achievements and to pay tribute to 
his many sterling characteristics. 

Edwin Warfield was bom at " Oakdale," his ancestral home 
in Howard County, on May 7th, 1848. His parents were 
Albert Or. Warfield and Margaret Gassaway Warfield, nee Wat- 
kins, both of wham were descended from families which had 
been actively and prominently identified fot many generations 
with the history of our State. The impoverishment of his 
family as a result of the war between the iStates required him 
to start life with little else save a healthy body and a spirit of 
energy, industry and ambition which never flagged. 

203 



204 



MAKTUlSO HISTOBICAL SIAQAZIITE. 



While a boy of eigitteen, teaohing in a log cabin scbool in 
Howard County, Edwin Warfield began to build bopes and to 
formulate plans wMcli evidently met fullest realization. We 
find Mm early in life occupying positions of public trust and 
responsibility. His services as Register of Wills for Howard 
County were marked by courtesy and efficiency. In 1881 be 
was elected to fill out the Tinesxpired term of Senator Gorman 
in the State Senate of Maryland and in 1883 he was re-elected 
for the full term of four years. His record as member of that 
body, and especially as its presiding officer in the Session of 
1886, established for him a reputation for ability and impar- 
tiality which insured his success in public life. 

He received from President Cleveland the appointment as 
Surveyor of the Port of Baltimore and assumed the duties of 
that office on May 1st, 1886. This position brought him in 
close contact with business men in Baltimore and gave him 
many opportunities for widening the circle of his friends. 

Aspirations to become Governor of the State of Maryland 
came to him in early life, but it was not until many years after- 
wards that these desires were realized. In 1903 the Demo- 
cratic party in Maryland selected him for the head of its ticket 
and he was elected Governor by a large plurality. His record 
in that office is a glorious heritage to his family. In it his 
ideals are clearly reflected, and the hopes and ambitions of 
many years found happy fruition. 

During his term as Governor of the State of Maryland, he 
found numerous opportunities of putting into successful opera- 
tion plans for creating and perpetuating records of historical 
events in the history of our State. The arrangements in con- 
nection with the return of the remlains of the Eevolutionary 
hero, Paul Jones, the infinite care VTith which the old Senate 
Chamber at Annapolis, in which George Washington surrend- 
ered his commission, was restored to the appearance it then 
poae^sed — these were among the matters which gave to Gov- 
ernor Warfield a feeling of intense happiness which no one 
other than an ardent lover of history could experience. 



EDWIN -WAEFIELD, 1848-1920. 



205 



If evolution is liistory, it is true that history can be said to 
exist in the processes through which the thoughts and inspira- 
tion of leaders of men are translated into action. President 
Warfield in his political and financial career found extraordi- 
nary opportunities to develop and to put into useful practice 
many historical theories which he had cherished in his early 
life. He was botii a student and a maker of history. 

In the business world of Baltimore and of the State at large 
Governor Wariield's role Was a big one — ^in many respects a 
creative one. He foresaw more clearly than any other man the 
wonderful possibilities which would arise from a far-reaching 
development of corporate suretyship, and in spite of severe set- 
backs and trying disc our agemlents he organized in 1890 the 
Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland. That company 
became a pioneer in corporate suretyship throughout the country 
and in a few years occupied a position of great importance in 
financial affairs in Baltimore. Later the Fidelity Trust Com- 
pany was organized as an offshoot of the Fidelity and Deposit 
Company. Governor Warfield served as President of both of 
these institutions with ability and distinction until failing 
health in January, 1920, required him to give up active duties, 
altiiough his interest in the welfare of these compenies remained 
unabated. 

He was an American to the core. His ancestors living at 
the time of the Eevolutionary "War, espoused the Cause of Inde- 
pendence, and, as said by the Baltimore 8vm, " they ruled him 
from their tombs, but ruled him so that all men honored and 
respected him." We all remember his whole-souled interest 
in all organizations having as their object the cultivation of 
patriotism and the preservation of those traditions which 
breathe a devotion to the principles upon which our Government 
is founded. 

Governor Warfield was an honorary member of the Maryland 

Society of the Cincinnati. He was also a member of both the 
Maryland Branch, and of the General ]S[ational Society, of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, and served with distinction 
for ft number of years as President of each. 



20'6 



MASTLAKO HISrOEIOAJ. KAGAZIWE. 



Few men lived more in tlie past, and drew more upon tra- 
dition, for lie believed that tradition hands down many of the 
best things of the paat with more precision and fidelity than 
h&ckt can traMwaftt; yet few mem grasped problems of the 
present with a more accurate appraisal, or turned opportunitie* 
more successfully to lihe service of high and useful purposes. 

For nearly two score years Edwin Warfield was a vital factor 
m tie life of the Maryland Historical Society. He became a 
member of the Society on the 10th day of March, 1879, and 
from that date until his untimely death, his interest in the 
Sodely never flagged. The record of his activities is a fuU 
one. For a number of years he was Trustee of the Peabody 
Fund and he served continuously from 1894 to 1913, on 
various standing committees. He was a member of the Finance 
Committee from 1901 to 1913, and was its Chairman during 
the last two years of that period. On February 12th, 1894, 
he was one of those charged with making arrangements for the 
celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Society. On 
May 13th, 1895, he was placed on the Washington Monument 
Committee. On April 12th, 1897, he became a member of the 
committee for the selection of two Marylanders for the JSTational 
Memorial Hall. The many positions of trust and responsi- 
bility held by him in the Society culminated in the office of the 
Presidency, which he filled with distinction from January, 
1913, until his death, March 31st, 1920. 

President Warfield entered upon his duties as President of 
the Society with a spirit of enthusiasm and a feeling of rever- 
ent devotion to the history and traditions of Maryland. It was 
his ambition, among other things, to restore the Maryland 
Historical iSociety to its pristine position as a meeting-place 
for notable assemblages. The Maryland Historical Society had 
played a leading part in the social and general community life 
of Baltimore City fifty or more years ago.' There was no reason 
in President Warfield's mind why this position should not be 
restored. As soon as he becamie President he endeavored to 
take steps to accomplish this result, but the out-break of the 
World War interfwed viwy «eriowBly with his plans. However, 



m 



much was done to improve tlie appearance of our home, and 
more and more stress was laid upon opportunities to use the 
Society for important gatherings, and for increasing its facili- 
ties to do research work in Maryland history. 

President Warfield shared in the opinion that the historic 
site of the Society, though hallowed by its associations, was ill- 
adapted to preserve the priceless records and other possessions 
of the Society. The necessity of securing a suitable home for 
the Society and a sufficient endowment fund was much in his 
thoughts. When the generosily of Mrs. Mary Washington 
Keyser made the first of these hopes a glorious reality, Presi- 
dent Warfield began to formulate plans for raising an endow- 
ment fund sufficiently large to indicate our grateful appreciation 
of Mrs. Eeyser's generosity, and adequate to meet the growing 
needs of the Society. 

When the opportunity arose of utilizing the home of the 
Society in the work of preparing suitable records of Maryland 
and Maryland men and women in the World War, President 
Warfield heartily endorsed the su^stion that &e Society 
should lend every possible assistance. 

Even when failing health made active participation by him 
in the affairs of the Society an impossibility, he lost none of 
his zeal in its weKare and development. At the last meeting 
between himself and an official of the Society, he emphasized 
his intention of devoting the remaining years of his life to the 
upbuilding of the Society, and especially to the securing of an 
endowment fund. His days in the Maryland Historical Society 
were days of earnest endeavor and constant usefulness and his 
activities on behalf of the Society constitute a bright chapter 
in ita history. 

CoiHiiaittee : 



W. Hall Haeeis, 

President. 

GhsOEGE L. BADCLrFFE, 



Geoege L, Eadcliffe^ 
Geobge Aenold Feick, 
Henet D. Haelai?, 
Vaw Leae BlJiCK^ 

P. If. €feMH»OEOTTGH, 

Chairman. 



20« 



UAarnjAm> hist(hmeciaxi ic^azini:. 



THE OLD INDIAN ROAD 
Wn-LiAM B. Maetb 

Past IT 

At tlie session of the Baltimore County Court held in March, 
1739/1, an order was passed " that the road formerly cleared 
from the Long Calm to Mr. Gists ^ be continued into the road 
coonmonly called the Old Indian road and that to be a main 
road to the Main Tails of Potapsco to be cleared by the respec- 
tive overseers such part as lies in their several precincts." 

(Baltimore County Court Proceedings, Liber , 1730-1732, 

f. 98.)'' 

At a session held in August, 1728, Luke Stansbury was ap- 
pointed overseer "to clear a road according to law from the 
Long Calm of Gunpowder Falls to Edward Ristons plantation 
at the Garrison Eidge." (Balto. Co. Court Pro., Liber I. W. 
6., ISTo. 6, 1728-1730, f. 26-28.) 

At a s^aion held in November, 1733, the court issued two 
orders concerning roads, which are as follows: 

" Samuel Owings is appointed overseer of the roads from 
Henry Butlers * up by Garrison ° to the IsTorth Run ' and from 

* The title " Mr." (generally reserved in those days for heads of promi- 
nent families and holders of office) and the ahseace of the Christian name, 
indicate that Ilichard Gist was meant. A younger member of the family 
would have been designated by his Christian name with or without the 
" Mr." 

' The author haa not succeeded in finding the letters by which this book 
should be described. It can, however, easily be identified by the above 
dates. It will be found in the office of the Superior 'Court Clerk, Baltimore 
Court House. 

'These letters should probably be "H. W. S." for "Humphrey Wells 
Stokes." 

* Probably not very far from Pimlico. In 1704 Henry Butler had sur- 
veyed a tract of 200 acres called'" Hope " adjoining the tract called " Pern- 
blico." In 1745 Oliver 0«mwell e«»veyed to Williaja Hamaond " Crom- 



THE OLD INBIAN EOAD. 



209 



said Butlers by George Oggs and James "Wells to Gwins Ealls 
and the rolling road from Edward Eeestons tiU it intersects 
the road from Walkers Mill to the said Butlers and the court 
road from the said Reestons to Gwins Falls." 

" The upper hundred of Potapsco is divided by order of 
court by the Court road which leads from Edward Eeestons by 
Mr. Richard Grists house until it intersects Gardiners Glade a 
branch of Bemi's Eun and with said Glade and run to the Main 
Falls of Potapsco, the north side Hundred to go by the name of 
Soldiers Delight Hundred, William liowlea is appointed con- 
stable thereof." (The above orders of court will both be found 

on page 125 of Liber , 1733-1734, of the Baltimore County 

Court Proceedings.) 

The foregoing records, as we shall presently observe, un- 
doubtedly reveal the origins of the road known today as the 
Old Court Eoad or as the Old J<^a Eoad and formerly known 

well's Chance " lying " between Henry Butler's and the Garrison Ridge." 
" Pemhlico " from which Pimlico Kace Course and the Pimlico Road take 
their names, was surveyed for John Oldton and Thomas Hedge April 26th, 
1699, and contained 800 a^res. ■" Hope," " Cromwell's Chance," and 
"Pemhlico", lie adjacent to one another. 

' The fort erected hy Captain John Oldton or Oulton. It stood at the 
head of the branch of Jones Falls now called Slaughterhouse Bun and about 
half a mile east of the present Garrison Road. A tract of 340 acres called 
" Oultons Garrison " surveyed for John Oulton May 13th, 1696, is de- 
scribed as beginning " at a bounded red oak standing on the east side of 
a glade by the Garrison." It has not proved difScult to locate approxi- 
mately the begisniBg of "Oidtoas Garrison " fnm TarioOB deeds, surveys, 
and resuriEeys. 

" The North Run of Jones Falls whi<^ descends tlu-ough " The Caves " 
tract. 

' Walker's Mill appears to have been on Jones Palls, and was probably 
well within the present city limits of Baltimore. On July 6th, 1733, Dr. 
George Walker and Jonathan Hanson obtained a writ of ad quod damnum 
on twenty acres of land on both sides of Jones Falls for the purpose of 
erecting a mill. Ten acres of this land they already owned. The tract 
name is not given. (Chancery Record, Liber I. R., No. 2, f. 652.) In 
1787 Moore's Upper and lower Mills, formerly the property of Dr. George 
Walker and of Jonathan Hanson were offered for sale. {Maryland Gagette 
and Advertiser, Decenlber 7th, 1787.) The road above referred to as lead- 
ing from Edward Reeeton's to Walker's Mill is probably identical with the 
presait IFalk Road. 



210 - 



KABT]j4Jen> wsmmeatx, maqazine. 



aa the Court Road.^ It received its name from the fact that 
it went direct to court, that is, to Joppa, the ancient county- 
seat on ■Gunpowder River. At the Long Calm Ford on the 

'Of the following allusions to the Court Eoad the first refers to that 
Bection of the road known today as the Old Court Eoad. The remainder 
have reference to those sections called today the Old Joppa Iload and the 
Camp Chapel Boad. Words in parenthesis are the author's notes: 

"K'icholas Orrick continued (overseer of the roads) from the widow 
Owings's to Shipley's Mill from where the court road crosses said road to 
the main falls of Potapseo, from the main falls by Joshua Sewells old 
plantation until it intersects said road and from the east side of Gwins 
Falls where John Simpkins ends by Nicholas Orricks until it intersects 
the great roads that lead from William Hamilton." (Baltimore County 
Court Proceedings, Liber B. B., No. A, 'November Cloiirt, 1754.) 

" Nicholas Merryman son of Samuel appointed overseer of the Boads 
from Baltimore Town by Benjamin Bowens (he then owned " Morgan De- 
light " between Baltimore and Towson, fhe York Road and Jones Falls, 
and " Samuels Hope," near Towson) till it intersects the Court Eoad, from 
Samuel Hopkins's (probably on " Friends Discovery," between Towson 
and Govanstown) until it intersects the Court Eoad from said town by 
Joseph Taylors (on Herring Eun) until it intersects the Court Eoad and 
from Hitchcock's old field towards William Parishes until it intersects the 
Court Road. (Same book as foregoing, same court.) 

" Jonathan Starkcy appointed (overseer of the roads) from GunpowcUr 
Ferry (on Gunpowder River opposite Joppa) to the little valley at the 
north end of Mr. Lawsons lane by Hatchmans old house from the Great 
Falls of Gimpowder to intersect the County Eoad by Rhoderik Cheynea 
and from said Great Falls along the Court Eoad up opposite to Heath- 
coat Picketts house." (Same book as foregoing, same court.) 

Heathcoat Pickett, according to the Baltimore County Debt Books, 
owned in 1754 two tracts, "Jacobs Inheritance" and "€rood Hope." In 
1755 and in 1756 he i« credited with a solitary tract, " Good Hope." 
The former lies about a quarter of a mile north of the junetion of tkc 
Old Joppa Road (the Cowt Road) and the Bel Air Road. The lattmr Ues 
on the south side of the Harford Road near Cubb Hill, between the Falls 
and the Old Joppa Eoad, and about half a mile from the latter. 

The " Mr. Lawson " above referred to was evidently Alexander tiawson. 
Manager of the Nottingham Iron Works, which were situated on the Great 
Falls of Gunpowder just above the present Philadelphia Road. The names 
of "Forges Bridge," "The Forge Road" and "Forges Church" temt- 
mraaoraie these wwks, the r-uias of which are still to be smt. 

Roderick Cheyse, Princqial oi the Baltimore County Free School, ap- 
parently owned no land, and probably lived on the Free School land, 
which was situated in the neighborhood of Knight's Corner about half a 
mile east of the Falls, where the present Philadelphia Eoad diverges from 
the Old Philadelphia. Road. This liad was coBV«yed 1^ Th<mw 'E»iii^ 



A MAP 



of early surveys laid out between Jones Falls and the Old Court Uoad, showing the lands owned by Josephui 
Murray in the year 1788, tfcfo^ vimk (Ma Miw I*^- J**^,^ !2?. S^*5 

John Risteau nwnUamd in 17* in eomwelion iritfc fce m Hoa* tmt m Smd on RMiard 

Gist lived. 



The topographical features of this map were taken from G. H. Uopkins's Atlas of Baltimore County 
published in Philadelphia in 1877. The lines of the varlou.s surreys were computed on the ba^is of the lines 
of the lands of Charles T. Cockey, J. E. Clayton, Cardiff Tagart, Richard F. MayBard, Patrlofc Henry Walber, 
Thomas Cradock and others, as given on <3. H. Hopkins'; rhiirt of the Third District of Baltltnore Coimty, with 
the help of various surveys, resurveys, wills and deeds relating to tliese lands. 

EXPLANATION 



A = part of ** Oulton's Garrison " owned by Joseptius 
Murray in 1738. 

B =: part of " Counterscarpe " owned by Josephas 
Murray in 17S8. 

BV — land given by Josephus Murray to Jemima 
Ashman in 1743, described in the deed as 
" part of two tracts " unnamed. The resurvey 
on " Counterscarpe " made for Murray in 
1747 shows that this land contained a part of 
" Counterscarpe " and was partly vacant land. 
Murray undoubtedly claimed the whole in 1738. 

E = " Murray's Delight " surveyed for Josephus 
Murray, 1720, but not patented. George Ash- 
man patented this land in 1747. 

BB = vacant land included in Richard Croxall's re- 
survey, *' Garrison." 

V =: vacant land added to " Counterscarpe *' by Mur- 
ray's resurvey, 1747. 

BA = part of " Counterscarpe " and of " Oulton's 
Garrison " called " Brother's Good tf 111 " on 
which Richard Gist lived. 



AB = part of " Counterscarpe " and of " Oultsn's 
Garrison " called " Addition to Brother's 
Oood Will " oirned by Richard Gist. 

AA part of " Oulton's Garrison " sold by Murray 
to Talbot, 1700, and poKMsed by Captain 
John Risteau, 1738. 

D 1=: " Credentia " possessed by Captain John Ris- 
teau, 1738. 

F = " Rich Ijevell " possessed by George Ogg, 1738. 
G " Addition " poweawd by George Otx, 1738. 
Hit " Georges BeKinniBg " poneseed by George Ojn^, 
^ 1738. 

I = " Security " surveyed for George Om, Jr., 1723, 

and sold to Cornelius Howard, :n42. 
J = '* Howard's Square." 
K = " Kurd's Camp." 
L = " Ely O'CarrolI." 
M = '* Litterlouna." 
\ =z " .Simiokin's Repose." 
P = " rroxall's Elbow Rocan." 
Q = "lI«bron." 



211 



Great Falls of Gunpowder Eiiver it met a more ancient road 
on its way from the tidewater s^tlemente of Patapsco towards 

to tiie Baltimore County Visitors in 1724. It should be noted, however, 
that on ZsTovember 12th, 1784, Clement Skerett advertised in the Maryland 
Journal and Baltimore Advertiser the re-opening of a stone tavern on the 
Philadelphia Road 13% miles from Baltimore Town " heretofore occupied 
by Messrs. Cheyne, Stevenson, Godsgrace, Phillips and Legett." This was 
probably the old Red Lyon Inn. In any case the " county road " referred 
to above is the Old Philadelphia Road. 

"William Towson continued overseer from Heathcoat Picketts to Wil- 
liam Peaxce's from Stansbury's old mill place on the Great Falls (at 
Cromwell's Bridge) to Heathcoat Picketts from the said mill place to 
intersect the Court Road to Isaac Risteaus and to charge the road from 
Samuel Stansbury's (probably at Loch Raven, where he owned much land) 
to William Towsons (he owned " Gimner's Range " on the site of Towscm 
and " Vulcania " on the head of Towson Run a mile west of Loch Raven ) 
and from William Towsons to Coll. Ridgelys Mill." '(Perhaps the North- 
ampton Forge on Petersons Run, but more probably a grist mill, which 
appears to have b«en situated on the Grent Falls near the pr^nt Qarford 
Road. ) The foregoing record is from the MPM book of court proceedmgji, 
same court, as the preceding ones. 

In the Debt Book of 1754 Isaac Risteau is credited with only one tract. 
" Enlarged Lott," 535 acrM, giv^ by Abraham Raven to his daughter 
Elizabeth Risteau, wife of Isaac, 1748. This land lies on the south side of 
Setter Hill (the ridge between Towson and the Great Falls) at the head 
of Herring Run. For many years it belonged to the Ridgely family, and 
is, I think, the tract or paort of the tract marked " Ridgely heirs " on G. 
H. Hopkins's Atlas of Baltimore Coimty, lying about a mile and a half 
east of Towson on the Old Joppa Road. It adjoins or lies near to " Hil- 
len's Haphazard," " Taylor's Addition," " Philemon's Lott," " Shoemaker's 
Hall," and " Strife." 

" Thomas Stansbury, Jr., continued (overseer) from the Great Falls by 
Samuel Merediths (probably near Meredith's Bridge, formerly Meredith's 
POTd) towards BaltinKtre Town until it intersects the Court Road frcsn 
Richard Chincoafhs towardfl Baltimore Town until it intersects the Court 
Road." , (Same book, same ssssim o{ couct.) Kote the labseswie of puoetur 
ation in these records. 

"Tbs court continues JosejA Suttrai orerseer of the court road frcaa 
Heathcoat Picketts to William Pearce's, from Staaisbury's old mill place 
on the Great Falls of Gunpowder to intersect the court road towards Isaac 
Risteau's late dwelling plantation." (Court Proceedings, Liber B. B., 
No. C, NovCTtriber Court, 1756.) 

"Loveless Gorsuch (appointed overseer) of the road from Stephen Gills 
to the Court Road and from Jones Falls to William Pearces (no land 
credited to him in the debt books) along the Court Road." (C!ourt Pro- 
oeediiigs, "Sessions," 1754-1759, November Comt^ 1757.) 



212 



MABTLAITD HXSTOIMCJX ICMt^AZINE. 



PHladelpliia.^ Only some two miles of the Court Road are 
missing today — ^the section lying between the Long Calm and 
the Camp Chapel. Between the Camp Chapel and the Bel Air 
Road the Court Road is known today as the Camp Chapel Road. 

The Long Cahn Ford — in former times probably the most 
famous ford in Maryland, but now almost forgotten — is situ- 
ated on the Great Falls of the Gunpowder River about half a 
mile above the Philadelphia Road bridge. The earliest men- 
tion of the ford by this name may be seen in a record of the 
year 1692.i<' 

"Joseph Bosley, Jr. (appointed overseer), of the road from Stephen 
Prices (near Cockeyaville) to the Court Road and from Wheeler's Mill to 
the Cburt Road." (Same book as foregoing, November Court, 1758.) 

*' Walter Tolley is appointed overseer from Gunpowder Ferry to the little 
valley at the north end of the lane by Mr. Lawsons Works (the Notting- 
ham Iron Works) by Hatchman's old house from the Great Falls of Gim- 
powder to intersect the County Road by Roderick Cheynes (the Old Post 
or Philadelphia Boad) a;nd from the «aid Gimt Falls along the Court 
Road up opposite to Heatheoat Picketts house and from the Pines (the 
Gunpowder Pines, a pine woods near Gennantown at the head of Honeygo 
Run) to the Free School (neajr Knight's Comer on the Philadelphia 
Road)." (Same book as foregoing, Novsnflbet Court, 1758.) 

• The Old Philadelphia Road from the Long Caha intersected the present 
Philadelphia Road at Elnight's Comer half a mile east of the Falls, From 
the intersection it runs to and across the railroad. This stretch was the 
old race-course. !Bey<md the imilroctd and as far as W^te Marsh (Cowm- 
ton) it is known as the Red Lyon Road from the old Inn of that name. 
East of the Falls traces of the Old Post or Philadelphia Road still exist 
running up fr<Hn the Long Calm and back of the Raphel farm, and through 
the n^o settlement called Browntown. The old road met the present one 
at or in the neighborhood of Dieter's Mill on the Little Falls of Gim- 
powder, formerly Onion's Lower Mill. The Philadelphia Road was straight- 
med from Onion's Mill to Skerrett's tavern in the year 1788, and a bridge 
erected over the Great Falls. (See Maryland Journal and Baltimore Ad- 
vertiser for October 25th, 1785, and for February 19th, 1788.) This was 
the origin of the modem Philadelphia Road in that locauty. 

* At a session of the Baltimore County Court held in November, 1692, 
Thomas Preston, Overseer of the highways in Gunpo<rder 'Himdred, was 
ordered to clear a road thirty feet wide " beginning at the maine roade to 

the upper wadeing place called the Long Cahne " (Baltimore 

County Court Proceedi^s, Liber — — , 1691-1093, f. 22 or thereabouts.) 
The lower ford was situated just below the present Philadelphia Road or 
Forges Bridge. The reputation of the Long Calm was enhanced by the 
fact that the Nottingham Iron Works were situated adjacent to it. During 



THE OLD IKIHAJT KOAB. 



213 



" The Oarrison Hidge " was a place-name more or less elastic 
in its application whicli was nsed to denote the hills and ridges 
about the headwaters of Jones Falls. It was derived from the 
" Garrison " or fort erected towards the close of the seventeenth 
century by John Oldton or Oulton, Captain of Rangers, at the 
head of a branch of Jones Falls now called Slaughterhouse Run. 

Edward Riston, Reaston, or Reeston owned at this period, 
so far as the records show, but one small piece of land, some 80 
acres, or the upper part of a tract called " Turkey Cock Hall," 
which he purchased of Richard , Crist in the year 1713. This 
tract, laid out for Richard Gist April 25th, 1706, for 200 acres, 
lies between Brooklandville and Rockland Station on Jones 
Falls, and, as well as I have been able to determine, is traversed 
by Jones Falls and by the Old Court Road.*^ 

Richard Gist at this time owned lands in three distinct locali- 
ties. In the first place, he owned the residue of " Turkey Cock 
Hall." He also owned three adjacmt tracts vizt. "Green 
Spring Traverse " and " lAddition to Grefen Spring Traverse " 
surveyed for hian Jan. 15, 1719, and March 31, 1721, respec- 
tively, and " Adventure " or " Street's Adventure " which he 
purchased from Francis Street in the year 1718 and later en- 
larged by resurvey. In 1728 he conveyed by deed of gift to 
his son Christopher Gist 350- a^res omt of the three afOTemen- 
tioned tracts. They lie between Gwinns Falls and the head 
of Jon^ Falls. " Adventure " is the land cm. which St. Thomas 

the Revolution these works and the land attached to them were confiscated 
and sold to the Ridgely family. They then became known as Ridgely's 
Forges. 

" Also called Garrison Forest or Rangers Forest. 

"In the Maryland Land Record OlBce is a plat of surveys made (the 
plat is not dated, but the date is evidently towards the close of the eigh- 
teenth century) in connection with the suits of Johnson versus Bosley and 
of Johnson versus Kramer, tried before the General Court. This plat 
shows the situation of " Turkey Cock Hall " with reference to " Litter- 
louna,". " Ely OXJarroIl,'* " Oockey's Trust," " Beall's Discovery," " Addi- 
tion to Poor Jamaica Man'« l^ta^e," "Miller's Choice," "Seised," «knd other 
tracts. 

Edward Reeston had surveyed in 1718 a tract called "Betty's Adven- 
ture " which he BolA in 172^ to John Oardiaer. 



214 



MABYULfW HXSTOSIOAI. KAOAZmE. 



or Oarriion Forest Cimrcli stands. T!be old Eider estate con- 
tained parts of eacli of these three tracts. 

In addition to the above lands Eiehard Gist owned 200 acres 
part of the tract called " Gounterscarpe," which he held und^ 
two deeds. On July 6th, 1711, Josephus Murray conveyed 
by deed of gift to his sister Zepporah Gist, wife of Richard 
Gist, 100 acres out of " Counterscarpe " called " Brother's 
Good Will " ; and on October 31st, 1724, he deeded to Richard 
Gist 100 acres out of " Gounterscarpe " adjoining " Brother's 
Good Will " on the west and called " Addition to Brother's 
Goodwill.'^ 

There is in the Baltimore County Land Records (Liber T. 
R., 'No. Jy, f. 13) a deed of release dated September 1st, 1750, 
from Josephus Murray to Richard Groxall which runs as fol- 
lows : " Witness that the said J osephus (Murray) did on the 
25th day of July, 1747, convey and make over to the said Grox- 
all part of ' Oultons Garrison ' and part of ' Gounterscarpe ' 
with only reserve by bond from the said Groxall bearing date 
the 18th of May, 1747, of 50- acres of land where Mr. Richard 
Gist lived and where Zeporah Gist now lives with condition 
that the said Zeporah should have and live on the aame during 
her naturall life, now these presents further witness that in 
ctmsideratian of £15 current money paid unto the said Zeporah 
Giat for her life in the '^id plan-tation being known by the name 
©f ' Brotiiers Good Will ' I do h^eby quit claim and for ever 
release unto the said Richard Groxall .... all the said land 
known and called ' Brothers Good Will ' being part of the land 
called ' Gounterscarpe.' " 

Richard Gist died afeoiut 1741. It aeems lik«ly that he took 
up his residence on " Brothers Good Will " at the time when 
ibe land was deeded to hit wife and it his home for the 
remainder ©f his days. 

On August 6th, 1752, a resurvey was executed for Richard 
Groxall, which included the larger part of " Oulton's Garrison " 
and most of " Gounterscarpe." This resurvey, which wsfcs 
ealled " Garriaon," mnbraoed that pert of " G<jimterscarpe " 



called " Brother's Good Will " on whicli Kichard Gist liad lived. 
" Brother's Good Will " occupies the southermnost end of " Gar- 
rison." It lies about a mile east of Pikesville on the north side 
of and adjacent to the Old Court Road and a short distance 
east of the junction of the Old Court Road and the present 
Garrison Road. It is part of the estate called " Dumbarton." 

" On G. H. HoiMns' Atlas of Baltimore County, published in 1877, the 
lines of the various estates, tracts and farms of the Third District, as they 
then stood, are shown. By preparing, from plats of surveys and of re- 
surveys, a map showing the relative location of " Garrison," " Risteau'a 
Garrison," "Ely O'CairoU," " Litterlouna," " Bedford Kesurveyed," "Crox- 
all's Elbow Room," "Hurd's Camp," Howard's Square," and other tracts, 
as well as any elder surveys which were included in the foregoing, such 
fw5 "Oult(»i's CJarrison," " Coimterscarpe " and "Credentia," the author 
has been able, with the help of Hopkins' chart, to determine the situation 
of the various parts into which " Garrison " was divided. The following 
deeds were also consulted: Robert North Carnan to Edward A. Cockey, 
1829; Samuel J. Donaldson, executor of Rctoert N. Caman, to William M. 
Metcalfe, 1838; William M. Metcalfe to John A. Lloyd, 1853; John A. 
Lloyd to Cardiff Tagart, 1853; Cardiff Tagart to Aaron H. Tucker, 1855; 
Cardiff Tagart to Jaanes W. Beacham, 1855; Samuel 0. Cockey to Noah 
Walker, 1859. The line indicKted on Hopkins' map as running northward 
from the Old Court Road and diviilii^ the lands of Patrick Henry Walker 
and Aaron H. Tucker is the given line of " Garrison " of " Counterscarpe." 
The point where this line begins just north of the Old Court Road is the 
beginning of "Garrison," Counterscarpe," and "Brother's Good WSU." 
" Garrison," on Hopkins' map of 1877, includes all of the estate of Charles 
T. Gockey and parts of the lands of Charles K. Harrison and Patrick 
Henry Walker. Part of P. H. Walker's lands south of and adjacent to 
the Old Court Road is "Croxall's Elbow Room." JThe land <rf Cardiff 
Tagart is part of " Garrison " and part of "Risteau's Garrison," a re-sur- 
vey on the original " Oulton's Garrison," "Credentia" and "Hebron." 
The places marked " J, E. Clayton," " Robert Rickett " and " Mrs. Base- 
man " are also parts of " Risteau's Garrison." The first lines of " Ely 
O'Carroll" and of "Litterlouna" appear as the dividing lines between the 
lands of J. E. Clayton, Cardiff Tagart and Mrs. Baseman on the one side 
and those of Adolphus Cooke arid A. S. Abell on the other. 

Attention should be called to the fact that, in ccsnpliance with the 
petition of Richard Croxall presented to the Baltimore County Court in 
March, 1756, the course of the Court Road through the Croxall property 
was altered. This petition, which will be found in Liber B. B., No. 5, 
f . 468, is as follows : " *YoUr petitioner hath a plantation on the Garrison 
Ridge which is very much incommodated by the Court Road going thro' it. 
That your petitioner to avoid the inconveniency hath at his own expense 
»«d eha^ge and hy tl» consmt cf Ae neighborhood cleared another road 



216 



KAETLAITD HISTOBIOAI- MACUZIlfl!. 



It is the opinion of tlie author that the road laid out in 1T28 
from the Long Calm Ford to Edward Kiston's or Keeston's was 
identical with that described in March, 1T30/1, as having for- 
merly been laid out from the Long Calm to " Mr. Gists." The 
order of court to construct the new road as far as Edward Ris- 
ton's was probably exceeded so far as to extend it to Richard 
Gist's dwelling plantation, and this extension was probably 
made at the expense of the parties interested in having it 
done, of which there were doubtless many. Erom Richard 
Gist's it was extended in March, 1T30/1, to meet the road 
called the Old Indian Road, which thereupon, from the point 
of junction to Patapsco Ealls, became a county road. We shall 
see later that the point where the two roads met and became one 
was probably not far west of the site of Pikesville. There is 
scarcely room for a doubt, moreover, that the completed road, 
finished in 1703-1T31 between the Long Calm and the Ealls 
of Patapsco, is the road called in records of the time the Court 
I§oad, and known in part today as the Old Court Road, and 
that the present course of the Old Court Road between Pikes- 
ville and Patapsco represents substantially the line formerly 
followed by the Old Indian Road. 

Apparently a genuine tradition that a section of the Old 

through his own land by which means persons travelling that part cross 
no branches but only one good bridge and causeway which cannot be done 
as the road now goes; that your petitioner c<»iceiveB it to he very little 
if any further round and hopes therefore your worships will approve of 
his intended alteration.' Which petition being read and heard is accord- 
ingly granted and it is ordered that the within new road be kept in repair 
by the overseer of the Court Boad instead of the old road." 

Richard Croxall owned at this time has resurvey, " Grarrison," and 
a narrow tract of 112 acres called "Croxall's Elbow Room," which he 
had surveyed May 25th, 1749, and which bounds on the southern end of 
"Garrison" and is traversed by the present OH Court Road. He also 
owned two small parcels of the tract called " Bedford Resurveyed " of 62 
and of 37 acres respectively. One of these lies between " Croxall's Elbow 
Room" and " Simpkin's Repose" (see map) and is not, according to my 
calculations, touched by the Old Court Road. IThe other paroell lies adja- 
cent to the west of " Simpkin's Repose " on both sides of the Reisterstown 
Road immediately north of Pikesville. Where the change in the Court 
Road made by Richard Croxall took ^aee tl*e Author is unable to decide. 



217 



Court Road follows tlie course of an Indian liighway survived 
until recent years. In a charming and instructive article pub- 
lished in tlie first volume of this magazine and entitled " Sol- 
diers Delight Hundred of Baltimore County," Hr. Edward 
Spencer makes the following statement : 

" The old Soldiers Delight Hundred began at the Patapsco, 
not far from the present Relay House. Its eastern boundary 
was the Old Court Road, extending from Elk Ridge Land- 
ing ( ?) across country to Joppa. This road, which still fol- 
lows the original bed and crosses the Reisterstown road at the 
Seven Mile House and the York road at Towsontown, is one 
of the oldest roads in the State. The Annapolis worthies used 
it to go to Joppa, and it was the Indian path from the 'Susque- 
hanna River to the Potomac at PiscatawayJ" 

To what extent the above statements are correct the author 
is able to answer only so far as concerns the identity of the Old 
Court Road and the Indian Road between Pikesville and 
Pifttapsco Falls. The records apparently show that the Old 
Indian Road turned northward at Pik^ville through the " Grar- 
rison " land, leaving the O'ourt Road at this point and doubling 
back on itself somewhat, until it again croiied Patapsco F-alls 
many miles above the lower crossing. 

It is possible, of course — ^indeed there may be more. than one 
reason for supposing — that two Indian trails met on or in the 
vicinity of the " •Garrison " tract, and that the Old Court Road 
from Patapsco to Gunpowder r«,lls represents the approximate 
course of one of them. This theory would not only explain the 
remarkable bend of the Old Indian Road to the northward, and 
to the northwest, but it would help to account for the situaticm 
of the old " Garrison " fort erected late in the seventeenth cen- 
tury on the east side of the tract called " Oulton's Garrison." 
Unfortunately, in the absence of all proofe, our theory must 
not be recommended too seriously to tiie consideration of the 
reader. 



After having been converted into a county road and called 
the Court Road, that section of the Old Indian or Indian road 



B18 



MA&Yuusti wsm^micyuL mkOAzm^. 



lying between Pikosville and Woodstock seems, for a time at 
least, to liave continued to be known on occasion by its original 
name. The following orders of tiae Baltimore County Court 
confirm this statement: 

JsTovember Court, 1T33 — " Cbarl^s Wells is appointed over- 
seer of the roads frcxm Jones's Quarter ^* to tbe Iron Works 
and tbe Indian Eoad out of said road to Gwinns Ealls out of 
said Jones's road Gist's Mill (sic) from tbe lower wading 
place of the main falls of Patapsco to the second wadeing place 
of Grwinns Falls, from the fording place of Davis's Run ^'^ to 
Moale's Point and from tbe Iron Works to William Ham- 
mond's from tbe lower fording place of Gwinns Falls to 
Moales P'oint and the ragland roads that leads from the 
intersection of said road to tbe said Moales Point and tbat tbe 
said overseer warn half of Hyde's taxables all of Bucbanans, 
Cbapmans, Hurd's and all of Lewis to work on aforesaid roads." 

(Balto. Co. Pro., Liber , 1733-1734, f. 189.) These old 

records are seldom punctuated. 

iN'ovember Court, 1734 — " William Peticoat is continued 
OTerseer of all the roads in 'Soldiers Deligbt bundred lying be- 
tween ibe main fall and Gwins falls of Patapsco vizt tbe Row- 
ling road from Captain Jones's qr. (quarter) tbe road called 
i3ie Indian road from tbe main falls to Gwins fall the rowling 

Captain Philip Jon^ ofmed several tracts on the ouij^irts of SoMiers 
Delight. 

The Baltimore Iron Works situated on lower Gwins Falls near Carroll 

Probably on the upper part of Gwins or of Jones Falls. 
Davis's Run, which empties into Dearing's Cove, about a mile above 
the bridge of the Annapolis road over Patapsco River. 

" Near the mouth of the nain l^anch of Riktif)sco River and crossed 
by the Annapolis road. 

*' On the Middle Branch of Patapsco River. 

*• A place frequently mentioned. A tract called " Batchellor's Fear " 
surveyed for Zachariah Maccubbin and Edward Norwood is described as 
lying in Baltimore County " near Ragland, between Gwins Falls and the' 
Main Falls of Patapsco, beginning at three bounded white oaks by the side 
of a valley falling into a draii^ht of the Dead Run, which is a tiranch of 



219 



(road) from William Hamiltons to Dogwood run from the 
said Hamiltons to tlie said Indian road the directest way to- 
wards court from tlie said Intion (sic) road where it crosseth. 
Suits Level Branch (iScut's Level Branch) to Mr. Gist's Mill." 
(Same Liher, f. 354.) 

Same court as foregoing, same folio — " Oliver Cromwell is 
appointed overseer of all the roads in the upper hundred of 
Patapsco between the main falls and Gwins falls vizt the roal- 
ing road from the Iron Works till it intersects the Indion (sic) 
the roaling roade from the head of Patapsco to the Dogwood 
Branch the road from the widow Teales to John Moles, from 
Moles to the lower fording place of Gwins falls from William 
Hamiltons to the Iron Works, the roade from the wading place 
of Gwins falls to the wading place of the Main Ealls of Patap- 
sco the road that leads from the Main Falls of Patapsco to Rag- 
land roaling road, the road from the main f alk of Patapsco to 
Moales's the road from Ragland to Gwins falls where Charles 
WeBs did liva" 



At a session of the Baltimore County Court held in June, 
1738, the following order was isiUed: 

" Ohristopher Gist overseer of the Garrison nmds is ordered 
to clear the old Indian Road from tibe Garrison Road down by 
Captain John Risteaus to go by the head of the Western Glade 
until it intersects the waggon road to goes (sic) by GecH-ge 
Oggs." (Court Proceedings, Liber H. W. 'S., !Nb. I. A* 2, 
1736-1738, f. 222.) 

The above order was evidently that to which Josephus Mur- 
ray took exception in a petition which he presented to the court 
in its November se^ioai of the tame year (same, f. 311) : 

^ Dogwood Run empties into Ben's Run just above its mouth. William 
Hamilton lived somewhere in this part of the country. In 1735 Edmond 
Howard conveyed to Emmanuel Teal part of " Tanyard " " between the 
dwelling plantation of Edward Teal, dec, and that of William Hamilton." 
" Tanyard " lies in the neighborhood of Patapsco Falls and adjoins " Rob- 
ins Camp," " Liverpool," and " Frederickstadt Enlarged." 

* ProlmMy the widow of Bdw«ri Teal. ®ee iM*e f 1. 

2 



I 



220 



MAEYi«Ajn> mmTomicM^ UAOAzm^. 



" Josplms Murray exhibits to the court the following petition 
vizt to the Worshipful Justices, etc. . . . whereas some person 
or persons by his or their contrivance have obtained an order 
of the court to clear the old Indian Road through a fine meadow 
of your petitioner (the dreaning of which cost near twenty 
pounds) the aforesaid Indian Road some few years past was 
turned three quarters of a mile lower down the said meadow 
where it still continues and your petitioner hath cleared a 
sufficient rideing road from George Oggs to Capt. J ohn Risteaus 
within a quarter of a mile of the said meadow and gates up and 
sufficient to pass through being done ever since March last, 
wherefore your petitioner with the advice and consent of his 
neighbours prays your worships would make void that order of 
June Court and order it to be cleared any other way that may 
not be of so much prejudice to your petitioner. These are to 
certify that we the subscribers are well content with Mr. Mur- 
rays turning the Indian Road, it being of little use since the 
court road was cleared: (signed) Cornelius Howard, William 
Gist, J(»hua Howard, John Hawkins, Samuel Owings, George 
Ashman, Thomas Welk, Thomas Gist, ISTathaniel Gist, William 
Lewis, Edmond Howard, Mathew Coulter, Lawrence, Ham- 
mond, John Woc^y of Oonnaageie, John Dirumple, Charles 
Motherby, John 'Simkin, Charles Hissey, George Bailey, 
Thomas Brothers, AsAmj Brayfoot, James Wells and Chris- 
topher Gist." 

The court ordered " that J oseph Gromwell and Richard Ste- 
phenson inspect the within road and as they appoint the said 
road tlie same be immediately cleftred by overseers aj^inted 
in adjacent precints." 

Although the foregoing petition was apparently granted, 
some of the petitioners, with others, again petitioned the court 
in March, 1Y83/9, to the end that the original order to clear 
the Indian Road should not be carried out. (iSame liber as 
foregoing, f. 356.) 

" Samuel Owings and several others exhibits to the court the 
following petition vizt .... whereas several of your petition- 



THE OLD INDIAN KOAD. 



221 



eis did sign a -petition that Mr. Josephus Murray preferred 
some time past to your worsliip setting forth that there was 
little or no occasion for yonr worships order for the clearing 
of a road from the road by Mr. George Oggs to that by Captain 
John Eisteans which is entirely useless to any person except 
Captain Eisteau and Mr. Ogg having the county road which 
is within a mile or less of the road p (per) your worships first 
order, wherefore your petitioners humbly pray that your wor- 
ships will give orders that the said road shall not be cleared it 
being altogether useless, (signed) Samuel O wings, Christopher 
Gist, Thomas Gist, Richard Pinckham, Edward Roberts, Peter 
Magers, John Cook, Edward Reeston, John Cockey, James 
Chilcoate, John Hawkins James Wells, William Lewis, Richard 
Jones, James Wells, Jr., Thomas Wells, John Dorumple, Jr., 
John Medcalf, George Bailey, Mathew Coulter, Charles Moth- 
erby, Cornelius Howard, John Simkin, William Seabrook, 
Joseph Cromwell, Thomas Bbnd and Josephus Murray." The 
foregoing petition was granted. 

In the opinion of the author there is but one locality which, 
on the evidence of the records, answers the requirements of hav- 
ing included at one time both, the lands of Jdbn Risteau and 
J osephus Murray and of being on the Court Road and on the 
"W^tem Glade." This place lies north of the Old Court 
Road and on either eide of the present Garrison Road.^^ It was 
here that in 1738 the lands of Captain- John Risteau and of 
Josephus Murray met. 

The " Western Glade," now called W^tern Run or iJie West 
Branch of Jones Falls, is first referred to in the survey of 
" Oulton's Garrison," May 13th, 1696, in which it is called 
" the West Glade." ^* In a survey ealM " Simpkins Re|K)se," 

** I am not sure that the local inhabitants know the road between Ste- 
venson and the Old Court Boad by this name. Under this name it appears 
in G. H. 'Hopkins' Atlas of Baltimore County, 1677. Mention of the 
Garrison Eoad will be found in a deed from John A. Lloyd et uxor to 
Cardiff Tagart et al., June 8th, 1853 (Towson, Liber 5, f. 381). This deed 
refers to that part of the Garrison Road with which we here have to deal. 

** In surveys vt this p^iod streams are e^nonly referred to as " glades." 



222 



MASTLAjm MmttmcAL jimAxmm. 



trliieli lies at or just nortli of Bikesville, aad was laid out for 
John Simkin (one of the signers of the foregoing petitions) 
August 30tli, 1715, it is described as " a great glade called the 
Western Glade." In a survey called "Enlargement," whi^ 
is situated between Mount Washington and Pimlico and was 
laid out for Edward iStephenson September 18th, 1704, it is 
called " The Western Run of Jones Falls." This stream rises 
about a mile north of Pikesville on what was formerly the 
William de Vries estate, or on that part of the land called 
" Counterscarpe " which was conveyed by deed of gift on 
Kovember 5th, 1T43, by Josephus Murray to his daughter Je- 
mima Ashman. The deed from Murray to Ashman is described 
as beginning " at a bounded white oak the second tree of the 
land called Hurds Camp near the head of the Western Glade 
and runs thence south 196 perches across the head of the said 
Western Glade." It crosses the Old Court Road a short dis- 
tance east of Pikesville, and empties into Jones Palis at Mount 
Washington. It is not to be confused with the Western Run 
of the Great Falls of Gunpowder River. 

On March 18th, 1736, Benjamin Hammond and Margaret 
his wife, daughter and sole heir of William Talbot, deceased, 
(xmveyed to John Ri«teau, who married Katherine, the widow 
of the said Talbot (and daughter of George Ogg, Sr.) "Ore- 
d^ntia " containing 311 acres and part of " Oldtong Garrison " 
containing 163 acres. In the will of William Talbot dated 
November Stib, 1713, the testator • bequeiJhs to his daughter 
Margaf6fe " my now dwellii^ plantation Oultons Garrison and 
a tract called Credentia Joining to it and also a tract called 
Hurds Camp all lying on the "Garrison Ridge," and provides 
that in case of the death of his daughter without heirs his wife 
Katherine is to inherit the dwelling plantation and " Creden- 
tia " and George Ogg, Jr., is to have " Hurd's Camp." 

Captain John Risteau, in his will d-at#d Dee^cdber 2^th, 
1752, bequeaths to his son George Risteau two adjacent tracts, 
"Benjamin's Prospect" and "George's Plains," " and all my 
right and interest unto the two tracts of land I now live on but 
my dear wife never to be disturbed thereon during her life." 



THE OLD INDIAJT BOAD. 



223 



Tlie testator makes no mention by name of hi« part of " Old- 
tons Garrison " and of " Credentia," whicli after his death are 
found in the pogseision of his son George ; and it is evident that 
thet€ were the " two tracte of land I now live on " which he 
beqti0«thed to that ton in his will. Under the name of " lUs- 
%Bm'* Garrison" Ihese lands, together with a small tract of 
fifty acres called Hebron," were reenrveyed for George Eis- 
t^n and were patented to him October 1st, 1765. " Hebron " 
occupies the south east comer of the resiirvey and is traversed 
by the Old Court Hoad. AH but a very small part of that 
part of " Oultons Garrison " which Captain John Risteau 
owned and of " Credentia " lie east of the present Garrison 
Eoad as it now runs between the Old Court Road and Steven- 
son Station. On G. H. Hopkins' Atlas of Baltimore County, 
to which we have already referred (Note 13), the line divid- 
ing the lands of J. E. Clayton, Cardiff Tagert and " Mrs. Base- 
man " on the one side from the lands of J. Keller, Adolphus 
Cooke and A. S. Abell on other represents the south three de- 
grees and thirty minutes east 306 perches and the south 320 
perches lines of " Risteau's Garrison," as well as the first line 
of " Litter Louna " and the first line of " Ely O'CarroU." The 
lands which were once Captain John Risteau's are represented 
on this map by the places of J. E. Clayton, Robert Rickett, 
Aaron H. Tucker and parts of the lands of Cardiff Tagart and 
of Mrs. Baseman. " Ctedentia " begins on the Green Spring 
Branch of the IsTorthern Central Railway about half a mile 
east of Stevenson Station. 

Josephus Murray in 1738 owned all of " Oultons Garrison," 
save the 163 acres already referred to, which his father, James 
Murray, conveyed to "William Talbot in the year 1700, and a 
small paroell out of the southern part of the tract, which he 
had made over to his brother-in-law and sister, Richard and 
Zeporah Gist, as we have already shown.*® In addition to thi-s 

""In the original deeds " Brother's Good Will " and " Addition to Broth- 
er's Good Will " are called parts of " Counterscarpe but they appear in 
reality to hare emlM^ced eadi a part <rf " Omlton's Garrison/' as shown 
OB our map. 



224 TtfATCY T.ATrn HWWMCAI. MAGAZINE. 

lie owned all of " Counterscarpe " surveyed for J ames Murray, 
May 10th 1700, except something less than two hundred acres 
out of the south east end, which he had deeded to the Gists 
under the name of " Brother'* Good Will " and " Addition to 
Brother's Good Will." On February 20th, 1720, he had sur- 
veyed a tract of two hundred acres called " Murray's I>elight." 
This land was never patented to Josephus Murray. It was 
resurveyed for Tobias Stansbury, January 1st, 1747, on a 
special warrant granted to iStansbury, he having pointed out 
in his petition to the Land Office that Murray had failed to take 
out a patent for tiie survey. Stansbury aasigned his rigjit to 
the land to George Ashman, the son-in-law of Murray, who 
patented it March 3rd, 1747/8 under the name of " Ashman's 
Delight." When the two hundred acres were resurveyed ten 
acres were found to be cleared but the land was otherwise un- 
improved. Although Josephus Murray evidently cared so 
little for this tract that he allowed his title to become void, he 
must be regarded as its possessor before 1747. "Murray's 
Delight " lies on the Reisterstown Turnpike about half a mile 
or a little more from Pikesville. On the east it adjoins the 
resurvey on " Counterscarpe " as laid out for Josephus Murray 
in 1747. Between it and the original " Counterscarpe " there 
appears to have been a strip of vacant land of which Murray 
apparently thought himself possessed, for he conveyed it by 
deed of gift on i^'ovember 5th, 1743, to his daughter Jemima 
Ashman. Until " Counterscarpe " was resurveyed Murray 
probably believed that this tract adjoined " Murray's Delight," 
a delusion of a type very common in those days. These facts 
are important. They prove that in 1738, Josephus Murray 
owned, claimed or believed that he owned a continuous stretch 
of land between the present Garrison Bead and the Beisters- 
town Bead embracing the headwaters of the Western Bun of 
Jones Falls. On the north west, as we shall presently observe, 
his lands adjoined the tract called" Security " which was taken 
up and owned by George. Ogg, Jr. They were separated by 
but a narrow strip from tte laads -of George Ogg, the elder. 



THE OLB INDIAN KOAD. 



225 



The greater part of Joseplms Murray's lands lay to tlie west of 
tlie present Garrison Eoad. At no point did they more than 
toudi the present Old Court Road. 

Let lis now consider the location of Greorge Ogg's lands. In 
169f, (jreorge Ogg purchased from Edward Parish ZOO acres, 
piart of the well-known tpact of 200O acres called " Parrishes 
Bange," lying «(a*os& the western part of Baltimore City and 
it# ©uburhs east of Gwins Falls and on Owins Eiun. He is 
credited with thi« land in a Eent Roll (d Baltim<:H*e "County 
(Calvert Papers, ISTo. 583). A tract of 150' acres called 
" Rashan " was surveyed for him in 1706. It adjoins " Pay 
My Debts." I find in the Annapolis Gazette for September 
15th, 1759, the tract called " Pay My Debts " advertised for sale 
and there described as lying " near Hunting Ridge on Ghiins 
Falls about seven miles from Baltimore Town and one half 
mile from the Conestogoe Road," which probably means that 
it lay on the Reisterstown Road in the neighborhood of Arling- 
ton or of Mount Hope. In March, 1709/10, George Ogg comr 
plained to the Baltimore County Court that an order passed in 
ITovember, 1709, would result in clearing the " Garrison Roade 
to Potapscoe " through his cornfield, stating that the road had 
been diverted some years before with the consent of all concern- 
ed. (Court Proceedings, Liber L. S., 'No. B, f. 95.) He was 
probably then living on his part of " Parishes Range " or on 
" Bashan." 

In 1711, George Ogg purchased from Thomas Randall two 
adjacent tracts, "The Rich Level!" and "Addition" or 
"Addition to Rich Levell." In 1715 he surveyed "Georges 
Beginning." "Security" was surveyed for George Ogg, Jr., 
in 1723, All of these tracts lie adjacent to one another on 
the Reisterstown Turnpike. In all they comprise nearly four 
hundred acres. " Security " Was sold by George Ogg to Cor- 
nelius Howard in 174'2. In 1745, he sold to Captain John 
Risteau 170 acres out of two of these tracts, "Addition to Rich 
Levell " and " Georges Banning." This parcell was in 1746 
conveyed by deed of gift by John Risteau to his son-in-law th6 



226 



MAEYLAIirD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



Rev. Thomas Cxadock. SmAi was tlie (Mrigin of tlie old Gradock 
place, " Trentliain." The whole of " The Bich Levell " was 
eventually included in a well-known r^nrvey, " Wester Ogle." 

These were the Imis owned by Geoiige Ogg in the year 1738. 
If we assume that in ihm fmr Ogg wm living on the lands 
north of Pfk^mlk, iearii^ omt ^ oixr <x)^dfenlion kxtii 
" Fariidiee Binge " and Ba^an," ihm iHm foregsaag Tmord^ 
elating to the Old Indian B@ad cbo. he explained with little 
car no diflfeaity. As liavs© «lready jwiwted out, l3ie lands «f 
Jesephus Murray lay bdween thot^ of Captain John Bist^m 
and of Oeorge Ogg and hounded on This fact, if 

otherwise unknown, might he inferred from tiie petiticm. of 
Joaephus Murray. The petitioner deelaros ^at ior ii*e accom- 
odation of Risteau and Ogg (who were, of course, near rda- 
tives) he has cleared a riding road between their two places. 
The implication seems to be that this road was laid out through 
th& petitioner's own land and that the dwelling plantations of 
the other parties lay on either side of his own. Moreover, the 
fact that the clearing of the Indian Road between the road 
which went by Captain Risteau's and that which went by George 
Ogg's was of no benefit to anyone except Ogg and Risteau, which 
we learn from the petition of iSamuel Owings and others, im- 
plies that Ogg and Risteau were neighbors ; and since the Indian 
Road was cleared from the Oarrison Road across the plantation 
of J osephus Murray and the head of the Western Run of Jones 
Falls in order to intersect the road going by George Ogg's, we 
are permitted to infer that the home of George Ogg lay some- 
where to the west. We are therefore justified, I believe, in 
concluding that the Ogg place, to which these records have 
reference, was situated on the four adjacent tract the location 
of which is shown on the accompaning map, and that the 
" wagon road .... by George Ogg's " is probably the present 
Reisterstown Turnpike. 

The phrase " from the Garrison Road down fey Captain John 
Bifteau's " prestnts a difficulty. A# we have already observed, 
^ hm^M wisioh once iielonfed to Oaptain Eiiteau lie alsK^ 



THE OLD INPIAN BOAD. 



227 



wholly east of the present Garrkon Koad us it runs between 
the Old Oourt 'Koad and Stevenson Station. I know of no 
reason for believing that the coarse of this road has been materi- 
ally altered since 1738. This is no diombt the road "from 
Henry Butlers up by the Oarrison to the IsTorth Run " of whieh 
Samuel Owings was aj^ointed overseer in 1733 by an order 
of court which has jilr^dy been quoted in this article. It was 
sl county road for the convenience of settlers, and the question 
as te) what relationship it bore to the trail leading from the 
" garrison " fort used by Captain John Oldton and his rangers 
when this neighborhood was a wilderness does not enter. We 
may, however, call attention to the fact that the site of the 
" garrison " lies about half a mile east of the present Garrison 
Eoad. Assuming, then, that the Garrison Eoad of . 1738 and 
that section of the present road lying between Stevenson and 
the Court Road are substantially the same, it is difficult to 
understand how the Old Indian Eoad could have been cleared 
" from the Garrison Road down by Captain John Eisteau's " 
in the direction of Josephus Murray's plantation and of the 
head of the Western Enin of Jones Falls, if these words are taken 
to mean that the road was to be opened past Eisteau's residence. 
Taking into consideration the fact that the language of these 
old court records is sometimes ambiguous, we are at liberty to 
construe the phrase "down by Captain John Eisteau's" as modi- 
fying the words " Garrison Road " and intended to define the 
part of the Garrison Eoad which was meant. This theory is 
borne out by the description of the section of the Indian Eoad 
which the court ordered cleared as a road " from the road by 
Mr. George Oggs to that by Captain John Eisteau's" which we 
have just noted in the petition of Samuel Ownings and others. 

J osephus Murray in his petition protesting against the open- 
ing of tile Old Indian Rc^ through his meadow, calls atten- 
tion to the fact that " the aforesaid Indian Road, some few years 
past was turned Aree-quarterg of a mile lower down the said 
meadow whare it still coniamueB " and liiat he has " olmred a 
sufficient rideiag road &om GtetJifB Ofp to Cjqptiin John Ris- 



228 MABYLAND HISTOEICAI. MAGAZINE. 

teaus within a quarter of a mile of tlie said meadow." The 
parties who sign his petition declare that they are " well con- 
tent with Mr. Murray's turning liie Indian Road, it heing of 
little use since the court road Was cleared." 'The " turning " 
t)f the Indian Ekmd to which Josephus Murray refers was proba- 
bly the exten&ion of the road from the Long Calm to Ridbaixi 
<3-isf-s into the Indian Road, whidi beetme the Court Road. 
The persons who join triih Murray in his petition call attention 
to the fact that the clearii^^ of the Court Road laM rendered the 
Ikdian tio&d oi little use. Samuel Owings in hi-s petition 
points out that the " county road " which runs within a mile 
or less of the section of the Indian Road to be cleared renders 
the clearing of the latter road useless to any persoiw except Ogg 
and Risteau. Josephus Murray's allusion to the great expense 
at which his meadow was drained and the fact that two roads 
^crossed the same " meadow " at a distance of three quarters of 
a mile, seem to indicate that the " meadow " in question occu- 
pied the valley of some stream, which was probably no other 
than the valley of Western Run. We know that both the In- 
dian Road and the Court Road crossed this valley. It should 
be remembered, however, that somewhere in this neighborhood 
the Court Road was diverted by Richard Croxall from its origi- 
nal course (see note 13), when we attempt to determine the 
course of the Indian Road from that of the Court Road. 

The conclusions which we would draw from the foregoing 
records may be summed up as follows : 

In March, 1730/1, a section of an Indian highway known 
locally in Baltimore County as the Old Indian Road was made 
into a county road, and as such still exists. It lies between 
Gwins Palls and Patapsco Falls. The road known as the Court 
Road ran into and covered the Old Indian Road as far as 
Patapsco Palls. The Old Indian Road and the present Old 
Court Road between Owins Palls and Patapsco Falls are assum- 
ably identical. The point where the Old Indian Road diverges 
ivcm the Old Court Road i« probably a short distance west of 
Pikesv^le, btit <an not be exactly determiia^. From this point 



V 



THE OLD INDIAN EOAD. . 229 

the Indian Road ran northeast across the road now known as 
the Keisterstown Road until it met the Garrison Eoad. Be- 
tween the Reisterstown Turnpike and the Garrison Road it ran 
through the lands which once helonged to Josephus Murray, 
running parallel to liie Court Road and distant from it leas 
than a mile. Where it crossed the Western Run of Jones Falls 
it appears to have heen distant aibout three quarters of a mile 
from the Court Road, if our theory is cortect that the valley of 
this run was the " meadow " to which JcwsephU'S Murray refers 
in hi-s petition. Attention mu«t he paid to the f«,ct that the 
Court Road in this vicinitjr was changed in 1766 hy Richard 
Croxall (see IsTote 13), hut it should he rememhered that the 
change was made within the limits of Richard Croxall's estate, 
and that if the original Court Road hetween PikesviUe and the 
Garrison Road had run much more than an eight of a mile 
south of the present road, its course would have lain outside of 
the Croxall lands. It is not improhable that the turning of 
the Court Road made by Croxall did not affect that part of the 
road where it crosses Western Run. 

Beyond the point where it crossed the Garrison Road, which 
was somewhere hetween the Old Court Road and Stevenson 
Station, the course of the Old Indian Road for many miles is 
lost to our knowledge. When we recover it again, it is in a 
place where we would scarcely have expected it to be, and, with 
due allowance given to the part which is unknown, has ap- 
parently made a bend through Baltimore County equal to a 
semi-circle. 

(To he contmued) 



230 



MAKTLiJN'D HISTOEICAI. MAGAZINE. 



SEVEN PIONEEES OF THE COI^ONIAL 

MSf mom 

EoBEET Vaughai^-^ Joseph Wickes^ Thomas Hyiirsoiir^ 
James Ringgold, Augustine Herman, Eichaed Tilghman, 

AN"D Simon Wilmee. 



With tlie very earliest Maryland settlers came Egbert 
Vaugtan, the first of the " seven pioneers." He was made High 
Constable for St. George's Hundred, iSt. Mary's County on 
February 12th, 1637/8- He was a member of the "Grand 
Inquest " consi-sting of twenty-four " Freemen " of the Prov- 
ince sitting at St. Mary's iiiat brought in the famous bill of 
attainder against Capt. William Cleybome. Immediately after 
the close of the session of the " Grand Inquest " the Assembly 
of the Province was reconvened (March 14th, 1637/8) and on 
that day one Thomias .Smith, who had acted as agent for Cap- 
tain Oleybome on Kent Island, was convicted of piracy and 
condemned to death by ha;nging. He was later executed by 
order of Gov. Leonard Calvert. Of this incident more later. 
" (Sergeant " Robert Vaughan was a member of the above As- 
sembly. 

On the 19th of March, 163T/8 Robert Vaughan was made 
Commander of Palmer's Island, one of the trading posts of 
Captain Cleyborne, which island lies in the mouth of the Sus- 
quehanna River. There he found so little to engage his atten- 
tion that he asked to be transferred to Kent Island on which 
Mr. Giles Brent was then Commander. That was done, and 
mention is made in the Archives of Maryland of his military 
title being " Lieutenant." While commander of Palmer's Is- 
land his military title was " iSergeant." 



SEVElSr PIOlirmiBS OV the OpJutmiAL lljMrfKRN SHOIti:. tSl 



In June of 1638 Robert Vaughn ■was sent to seize the good® 
and chattels of Captain Cleyborne on Palmer's Island, and on 
July the 1st, 1638, the goods and chattels on Kent Island be- 
longing to Captain Cleyborne, which had been in the care of 
Thomas tSmith above mientioned. In a suit in 1667 to recover 
" Beaver l^eck " on Kent Island, the land which had belonged 
to her father, Thomas Smith, Gertrud Anderton, wife of John 
Anderton, summoned Robert Vaughan to testify. The capture 
and execution of Thomas Smith is described in this deposition 
of Robert Vaughan made at a session of the Provincial Court at 
St. Mary's in 1667, many years after the episode. It is as 
follows : 

" Then was taken the oath of Captain Robert Vaughan and 
being sworn in open Court — iSaith that sometime in the year 
1638, or thereabouts, being then servant to the Right Honorable 
the Lord Proprietary of this Province and then under the com- 
mand of Leonard Calvert, Esq^ Lieutenant General of the said 
Province, went with the said Lieutenant General with a party of 
men to reduce the Isle of Kent under the government of his 
Lordship, being then in actual rebellion. The said Governor 
caused one Thomias Smith to be put to death (one of the inhabi- 
tants of the said Island) and that after he was executed the said 
Governor caused this deponant to make seizure of his estate for 
the use of the Lord Proprietary which was accordingly done, 
but within a few days after the said Governor commanded this 
deponant to deliver the aforesaid estate unto Jane Smyth, the 
relict of the said Thomas (Smyth into her possession for the 
proper use of her young female children of the aforesaid Tho- 
mas Smyth and further this deponant sayeth not." ^ 

Capt. 'William Cleyborne had been trading with the Indians 
on Kent Island several years prior to the granting of the 
Charter to the C'alverts and, as a part of the older Colony of 
Virginia, Kent Island had sent representatives to the Assembly 
of that Colony at Jam^stcwn. So hard was it for Cleyborne 

^Prov. Court Records, Vol. F. F., p. 550. 



23£ 



MAMTLAITD HIStOEICAL If AQAZmi!^ 



to accept the decision of tlie Privy Council sitting at WHte- 
liall, England, confirming to Lord Baltimore all tlie lands, 
including Kent Island, lying within the metes and bounds as 
called for by his Charter, that he set up a rebellion against the 
government of Lord Baltimore. It was in 1638 that Leonard 
Calvert set sail for the Island to " reduce " it, as Captain 
Vaughan expressed it, and crossing the Chesapeake with two 
small vessels manned by the sturdy volunteer soldiers of the 
Colony, it must have been a charming picture that they pre- 
sented. The flag of the Calverts with its black, gold and scarlet 
colors and silver tinsel glistening in the bright sunshine on its 
very first warlike mission doubtless caused the insurrectionists 
on the " Isle of Kent " to regret the action they had taken long 
before the vessels pushed their keels up on the sandy beach. As 
has already been stated Capt. Robert Vaughan played an im- 
portant part in the " reduction " of the island. 

At the time Giles Brent was made Commander of " Our Isle 
of Kent in all matters of warfare by sea and land, etc," and to 
be " Chief Judge in all miatters civil and criminal," we learn 
that a writ was issued to Mr. Bk^ent to assemble the Freemen of 
the Island at a place and time in his discretion, to make elec- 
tion of one or two burgesses for the next Assembly which would 
meet at iSt. Mary's City. The election resulted in " Lieuten- 
ant" Robert Vaughan (his military title received in 1640) ^ 
and Mr. Richard Thompson being sent with the proxies of the 
Kent Islanders to the Assembly. Mr. Brent was, on April 
11th, 1643, made "Lieutenant General, Chancellor, Admiral, 
Chief Captain, Ma^strate, and Commander, as well by sea m 
by land of this Province of Maryland and of the Islands." 

The friendship tihat existed between Mr. Brent and Robert 
Vaughan lasted over many years, and vrm deepened by m^y 
services rendered by the latter during the year they were offi- 
cers on the Island. It was Mistress Margaret Brent, sister of 
Giles Brent who demanded on the 21st of January, 1647, a 
vote in the Assembly " for herself and voice for that at the last 
Court, the 3rd of January, 1647, it was ordered that the said 



SEVEK PIOIfEEl^ 01" TSE COIXJHIAI. EASTEElf SHOEE. 238 

Mistress Brent was to be looked upon and received as his Lord- 
sHp's attorney." ^ 

'Captain Vanglian received a warrant for 300 acres of land 
and on September 29tb, 1658, be received a certificate of survey 
for " OReurden," 300' acres on tbe east side of Langford's Bay 
in Kent County. Tbis property may bave been bis bome in 
tbe later years of bis life, and if be did live tbere, bis nearest 
neighbors were Tbomas Broadnox, Robert Dunn, Jobn Gresb- 
am, Moses Stagwell, Henry Morgan, William Coursey, William 
Coxe, Jobn Langford, Tbomas Soutb, and Ricbard Woolman. 

Captain Vaugban's public services, so far as tbe official rec- 
ords sbow, lasted until tbe day of bis deatb in 1668. He was 
commissioned to bold Court on Kent Island in 1642, and again 
in 1644. In 1647 Leonard Calvert, tben Governor of tbe 
Province, "appointed Robert Vaugban to be Chief Captain 
and Comttnander of all the militia of the Isle of Kent," and in 
1648 he was commissioned one of the Provincial Council. On 
the 12th of Augus^ 1648, Captain Vaugban received a Com- 
mission as the Comflnander of the Isle of Kent. It is in part as 
follows : 

" To our trusty and well beloved Robert Vaugban, Gentle- 
man, whereas we have found you very faithful and well de- 
servir^ of us upon the occasion and insurrection and rebellion 
in our said Province of Maryland begun and fomented by that 
notorious and ungrateful Robert Ingle and bis complices against 
our dear brother Leonard Calvert, deceased, our late Governor 
of the said Province and our undoubted right and title to tbe 
government to tbe same wherein you bave manifested to the 
satisfaction of us and our Colony there such Fidelity, Courage, 
Wisdom, Industry and Integrity, as render you capable and 
worthy of tbe trust hereby by u« intended to be reposed in you. 
Etc., etc., etc., 

Signed by: Cecelius Calvert, 

Lord Proprietary. 

12 Aug. Anno Dom. 1648." » 

' Arch. Md., Vol. I, p. 215. 
» Aroft. MA., Vol. in, p. 216. 



234 



itjUrrLMTB miwT&mcMi^ uAmAsmm. 



The above eomitaission signed hy Cecelius Calvert was in 
force until 1650, witli tlie exception of one month — ^between the 
llth. of JSTovember and the lltb of December, 1648. When 
Grovernor William Stone took bold of tbe affairs of the Province 
in Maryland, lie appointed Captain Vaugban on tbe 29tb of 
July, 1650, to be Commander of tbe Isle of Kent County, to 
grant warrants for land within tbe said County. He remained 
Commander for some years, but bis right to issue land warrants 
was revoked by Governor Stone. In 1661, June 14th, com- 
missions as Justices of tbe Peace for Kent County were issued 
to Captain Eobert Vaugban, William Coursey, Thomas Broad- 
nox, Seth Forster, William Leeds, and James Ringgold, Gen- 
tlemen. This position as Justice of tbe Peace was a very im- 
portant one, and the members of the quorum " are said to 
have worn a wig and ermine, similar to those worn by tbe 
Justices in England. 'Captain Vaugban continued to serve as a 
Justice until his death in 1668. There is a statement in the 
public records of the Province,^ in which it is shown that Moses 
Stagwell was appointed Sheriff of Keoit Oonnty, and was swofn 
in by Captain Vanghan on July 5th, 166Y. Edward Burton, 
son-in-law of Captain Vaugban, became security for the bond of 
Mos^ St^weU. 

With Captain Vatighan had ccane to Kent County, one Ed* 
Ward Burton, mentioned above, who courted and married Mary 
Vaugban, dau^ter of Captain and Mrs. Mary Vanghan. Ed- 
ward Burton and his wife lived in Kent County. Upon his 
death in 1672, his wife was made administratrix of his estate^,^ 
and Jamtes Ringgold became her security. A short time after 
this, James Ringgold makes a statement, the 24th of July, 
1673, to the Provincial Courts, that he had married " Mary 
Burton, relict of Edward Burton," and on the 12th of Febru- 
ary, 1674, Mary Ringgold states that she is tbe " relict of 
Edward Burton, and the wife of James Ringgold." James 
Ringgold was the son of Col. Thomas Ringgold. 

* Arch. Md. Assembly, ProeeeSmgs, 1667. 
'Land OflSce Records. Test. Pro., Vol. vi. 



SEVEir PIO]^S«BS OF THE COZ-OISIAL. EASTKlUf SHQEE. 235 

About 1650 three more of these pioneer Eastern Shore- 
men, Joseph Wickes, Thomas Hynson and Thomas Einggold 
came to Kent, and took up land on the lower part of the County 
and they doubtless found the home of Captain and Mrs. 
Vaughan " a haven in the wilderness." Since Captain Vaughan 
was in such close favor with the Lord Proprietary it is right 
to suppose that he was of great assistance to those settlers, who 
upon their arrival in the Province found it hard to accommo- 
date themselves to the new conditions. While the reason for 
their coming to Maryland is not known it is probable that these 
three pioneers had found that "religious toleration" under 
Cromwell did not suit their particular ideas, and that they were 
induced to leave their comfortable homes to seek refuge in Mary- 
land where they had heard that there was " religious liberty." 
It will be remembered that Maryland's " religious liberty " was 
brought about by the desire of Lord Baltimore to ^tablish a 
colony for his religious friends. To do so he was obliged to 
adopt the policy of " religious liberty." He realized that it 
was impossible to establish an exclusive Roman Catholic Col- 
ony under the Church and State of England. 

It is possible that these gentlemen were " adventurers " ; it 
is probable that they were refugees. Be that as it may, it did 
not lessen their interest, once they had established themteelves, 
in the welfare of the Province, and they entered eagerly into the 
work of establidiing Maryland traditions and Maryland homes 
— ^traditions and homes that have come down to their posterity, 
and of which their posterity should be very proud. 

Upon the death of Captain Vaughan his widow was made 
administratrix of his estate, and filed her account on the 3rd 
of February, 1668. It is not always of interest to look over 
the inventory of personal effects, but to the student of the Col- 
onial period of Maryland these inventories provide a good basis 
for picturing in the mind's eye the interiors of the Colonial 
homes. 

It is interesting to learn that among Captain Yaughan's per- 
sonal property was a good library, indicating a man of culture. 

3 



Ml6 MAKWUJn) MIMTC^ICJX M^AJHtm, 

There was an iionr glass on the mantle over the fireplace and a 
sun dial out on the front lawn. There was a warming pan, a 
bellows, a hammock, and a trundle bed. By far the most 
interesting item in the inventory was a crossbow, probably kept 
by him for its association with some of his ancestors, for there 
is no record of the use of a crossbow in warfare in Maryland. 
In addition to the crossbow his other weapons were three guns 
and two pistols. 

The second of the " seven pioneers " was Joseph Wickes, who 
came to the Province in 1650. It was in that year that Oliver 
Cromwell invaded Ireland and met with his signal military 
success there. In May 1650 Cromwell returned to London in 
triumlph and was made Captain General of all the f orcei of the 
Commonwe alth. 

J oseph Wickes must have left England about this time as he 
was in Maryland on July 15th, 1650, making claim' for land, 
under the conditions published by the Proprietary. When the 
authority of the " Lord High Protector " was extended to the 
Province of Maryland " Capt." Joseph Wickes became a mem- 
ber of the first Assembly called. This assembly convened at 
Patuxent, then Capitol of the province, shortly after Cromwell 
was installed " Lord Protector." The installation took place 
on December 16th, 1653, at Westminster Hall. 

First mention of Joseph Wickes' military title is found in 
the Records of the above mentioned Aissembly. He is there 
called " Captain Wickes." As has been previously mentioned 
Captain Wickes came to Kent Island with Colonel Thomas 
Hynson. We find that his claim for lands began with a war- 
rant and that in obtaining the warrant he stated he had brought 
into the Province of Maryland three people in 1650. 

Shortly after Captain Wickes came to the Province, he went 
to Kent Island, and acquired from Elizabeth Cummins a tract 
of 400' acres known as " Love Point," it being a part of the 
original 600 acres called " Point Love," which was surveyed for 
Edward Cummins, the deceased husband of Elizabeth Cum- 
mins. Captain Wi-ckes had his warrant filed at St. Mary's 



SEVEN PIONEEIKS OS" THE OOLONIAI. KASTEElSr SHOSE. 8B7 



City, and tlie property ma surveyed for him on the lYtli of 
January, 1652. The yearly rent to be paid at Christmas time 
to Lord Baltimore was eight shillings sterling, or four bushels 
©f corn, " to be paid at the place where the Kent Hill " tiien 
stood. This property was the first Captain Wickes owned in 
the province, and it was upon this property that he made his 
home, prior to acquiring " Wickcliffe," which became his home 
in later years. 

When Augustine Herman, another one of these " seven 
pioneers " was sent by Governor Peter Stuyvesant as an Am- 
bassador to Maryland, he spent the night of September 23rd, 
1659, with Captain Wickes at his home — " Love Point," on his 
way to the home of Governor Feudal.^ 

Upon the records of the Land Office of Maryland, now situ- 
ated at Annapolis, is written: 

" Joseph Wickes entereth his rights, viz : — ^f or transporting 
himself, John Mackonica and Wm. Davies, Anno Dom. 1650; 
John Morgan, Edward Tenant 1653 ; Anne Gould 1655 ; Mary 
(his wife), Joseph and Mary Hartwell, her children, Francis 
Brooke and Thomas Brooke (servants) Anno Dom. 1656; John 
Langthome, Elichard Hewson and Elizabeth Keele, Anno Dom. 
1657 (in all 850 acres.) 

July 17, 1658. Wrt returnable January 1st, 

next, (1659)."^ 

According to a deposition made by Joseph Wickes, he was 
born in 1620, and was therefore at the time he made the request 
for land in his thirty-eighth year. Having received a certifi- 
cate of survey under date of September 22nd, 1658 for 850^ 
acres at the mouth of the Chester Eiver, he and Thomas Hyn- 
son received a " Grant " ^ January 19th, 1659 for " Wick- 
cliffe." This grant of land to them jointly, indicated that they 
had thrown together their fortunes, and had received from the 

•Holland Records, New York CJolonial ManHscripts. 
^ Land Office, Annapolis Warrants, Vol. Q, pp. 321-322. 
Land Office, Annapolis, Emigrant List, Vol. Q, p. 66. 



238 



MAEYLAOT) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Land Office, tlien situated at Bi. Mary's City, a Grant in wMcli 
both shared equally. Thomas Hynson, who stated that he was 
born in 1620, in later years accepted from Captain Wickes land 
in lieu of his rights in " Wickcliffe," and shortly after the grant 
was made Captain Wickes began the home at this old place on 
Eastern Keek Island that has made tibe Wickes's f amoufS for 
hospitality. 

From " "Wickcliffe " the water view is magnificent. Far to 
the right are the western shores of the iChesapeake Bay barely 
discernible in the grey mist that rises from the glimmering sur- 
face. The Chester River flows to the south and east, and 
divides Kent County, in which is located " Wickcliffe," from 
Kent Island. As a typical home of that Colonial period of 
Maryland, extending from 1658 to 1692, "Wickcliffe" pre- 
sents claims second to no other. 

The inventory of the personal property of Major Wickes, 
made shortly after his death, in 1693, by two of his neighbors — 
Hans Hanson and Thomas Smyth, shows that there was on the 
ground floor of the house an " Outer Room," and an " Inner 
Room." It also showed that there were two sleeping rooms — 
the " Little Chamber " and the " Great Chamber." There was 
a hallway on this floor extended to the second floor. In the yard 
near the house was the " store house," an indispensable feature 
of every large plantation in those days. 'Not only articles of 
food, but clothes, medicines and every necessity were kept in 
plentiful supply. This was made necessary by reason of the 
uncertainty of traffic between the Province of Maryland, and 
the mtother country — ^England. 

Reverting to the old house, we find that each of the rooms 
mentioned contained " a bedstead, feather bed, curtains and 
vallins, a rug, a pair of blankets, a boulster, and two pillows," 
all of which were necessary to complete the equipment of the 
high post bed of ihe times. The " Inner Room," which seems 
to have been an unusually large one, ursed as a dining room and 
also as a library, had in addition to the above mentioned bed, 
a ^ of chairt described as of " Turkic work." There were 



SEVEN PIOITEEES OF THE COLONIAL EASTERN SHOEE. 239 

^ a " great " round table, a " secretary," a " standiA," a cabinet, 
a chest of drawers, two wainscot " cbests, and one deal cbest. 
On the wall were two mirrors, and over the windows were 
" hangings," evidently as costly as those found in L<mdon houses 
at that time. The brass andirons graced the spacious fire place, 
and on the mantle stood the brass candlesticks and the hour 
glass. On the stairway was the " old clock." On the wall hung 
a chart, probably in bright col*^®, which bore the title " A Map 
of Man's Mortality." 

This room was a living room, as we call it nowadays, and as I 
have m!entioned before, contained Major Wickes' library, which 
consisted of some thirty-eight volumes of purely religious sub- 
jects from " Ainsworth's Annotations " to " jfTewman's Con- 
cordance of the Bible," and included such writers as Richard 
Bernard, Tobias iCties, Williams Perkins, John Weems, John 
Owen, "William Harrison, John Preston, IsTicholas Bifield, Jos- 
.eph Carlyle, William Grreenhill, Jeremiah Burroughs, Martin 
Luther (his " Commentary upon the Galatians "), Anthony 
Burgess, Edw. Leigh, and Chris. Laud. 

In addition to the above mentioned volumes were " The Eng- 
lish Physician" by Culpepper, a "Clerk's Guide," Wilson's 
" Dictionary of the English Language," and a " General His- 
tory of the ITetherlands." " The Complete Attorney," and 
Bbulton's " Abridgemient of the Statutes " were highly prized 
by Major Wickes. 

A family of lawyers, a profession handed down from father 
to son, a gift of nature, not of fortune, the Wickes have occu- 
pied prominent places in the Maryland Courts, both during the 
days of the Province, and those since she became a State. 
Major Wickes was no exception, for he filled his place on the 
bench of Kent County, as one of his Lordship's Justices' with 
distinction, and th^re is no doubt that his " law books " men- 
tioned above came into use very often, and that the legal ques- 
tions were decided by Major Wickes after consulting the 
" Statute." 

Eor severa,l y^rs prior to 1674 the Court for Kent Oounty 
had been held at Major Wickes' home on Eastern !N"eck Island, 



240 



MAUTLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZIKE, 



at " Wic^cliffe." In 1674 Lord Baltimore ordered that Oouft 
be held on Eastern l^eck, and it was a<3C<»dingly lield at Hew 
Yarmoutli. 

On the walls of tlie lioiiie, in Varioas ramm no doubt, were 
hung two swords, eleven guns, and powd^ horns, all kept in 
good order, ready to protect the family from afiy sudden attack 
of the Indians. There was another use for the guns, and that 
was the shooting of wild fowl, which in season was so abundant 
at " Wickcliffe." The Chesapeake Bay, and the Chester Kiver 
in those days literally sTWarmed with ©imvasback duck, wild 
^ese and swan. 

Out on the lawn back of the old mansion in a long row were 
the " Quarters," or homes of the negro slaves. The slaves men- 
tioned in the inventory in 1692 were " Frank," " Tony," 
''Obed," "Tom," "Jenny," "Becky," "Judith," " MoUie," 
"Hannah," "Bobby," "Butcher," and " N"anny." Two of 
these slaves lived on Major Wickes' Love Point farm on Kent 
Island. In addition to the slaves, there are mentioned in the 
same inventory as being bis property, 23 horses and colts, 153 
cattle of all kinds, 132 sheep, 93 hogs, 52 geese, and 21 turkeys. 

Major "Wickes was certainly a man of force and character to 
have built such a home, and amassed such a fortune in that new 
country, amid such adverse conditions. 

The only evidences I have found of Major Wickes' religious 
affiliations are in the public records of the Provincial Assembly. 
He signed a paper with several others in Kent County, on the 
13th of May, 1682, which was addressed to the King of Eng- 
land in behalf of Lord Baltimore, and in this paper the fol- 
lowing clause appears: — "We, therefore, the subscribers pro- 
fessing the Oospel of J^us Ohrfit according to the Liturgy of 
the Church of England and Protestants against the .doctrine 
and prasjtic© of t3ie Church of R<mi«." This is the first record. 
The second is similar, and was in the form of a menaorial to the 
King of England (William III), which begins: 

"We your Majesties most loyal and dutiful subjects, the 
ancient (first) Protestant inhabitants of Kent County, etc., etc." 



SEVEN PIONPEES OF THE COLONIAL EASTERN SHOEE. 241 

This memorial was signed by Major Josepli Wickes, Mr. 
William Frisby, Henry Coursey, Robert Burnam, Philemon 
Hemsley, Simon Wilmer, William Peeke (Paca) , Josias Lang- 
hsm, Thomas Binggold, Thomas iSmith, Orifflth Jones, John 
Hynson, George Stnrton,- Lambert Wihner, -Gerrardin Weasels, 
iEicihard Jones, and Philip Connor. 

'Major Joseph Wickes died in Deeembap, 1692, one year after 
the new Royal Governor, Sir Lionel Copley csim to govern the 
ProviiMje. The coming of Governor Copley was the beginning 
of the movement to establish the Ohtirch of England in Mary- 
land by law. By tiie antiiority of this la,w, which was passed 
by tiie Provincial Assembly in June, 1692, parishes were laid 
oittt and churches built. It wiU be seen that Major Wickes died 
about six mouths after the law was passed, and as the election 
of vestrymen did not occur until January 22nd, 1693, for St. 
Paul's Parish, which Parish included that part of Kent County 
in which " Wickcliffe '' was situated, his name does sot appear 
on the first list of vestrymen of that Parish. 

It is probable that he took an active part in building the 
first church, on Church Oreek, near his home in 1652, and was 
a supporter of this forerunner of old St. Paul's Church. This 
latter church was built first of timber (1692), and later (1713) 
of brick. iSaint Paul's Church is standing today, and is a 
monument to the religious zeal of the colonists who were its 
members, and to the faithful care of their descendants. 

Major Wickes was a member of the Provincial Assembly at 
intervals, from October 20th, 1654 till October 24th, 1683.^ 
He was a Justice of the Peace of Kent County, and was ap- 
pointed Chief Justice, 18th of April, 16Tl.i« 

At the time of Major Wickes' death, his family consisted of 
three sons and one daughter. They were Joseph, Benjamin, 
Martha by his first wife, and Samuel by his second wife, who 
was Mrs. Ann Hynson Randall, the widow of Benjamin Ran- 
dall. She was a sister of Thomas and John Hynson, and the 

'Arch. Md,, Vol. vn, pp. 6-590. 
i« Arch. Md., Vol. v, p. 87. 



242 



MAEYI.AND HISTORICAL MAGAZIWE. 



daughter of Colonel Thomas Hynson, the business partner of 
■Major Wickes, whom she married about 1671. It is of no 
importance, but of interest, that the widow of Major Wickes 
married again, her third husband being that fine old English- 
man, St. Leger Codd, who was one of tiie first vestrymen of 
Shrewsbury Parish in Kent County, and who was also a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Oouncih 

■ 'Samuel Wickes, the youngest son of Major Wickes married 
at St. Paul's Church, January 13th, 1706, Frances Wilmer, a 
daughter of Simon and Rebecca Tilghmlan Wilmer of Chester- 
town. He received on the l^ih of June, 1701, the date of th€ 
division of the property left by his father's will, bearing date 
3£arch 26th, 1688, that pOTtion of " Wickcliffe " to the west 
of a line drawn north and south, beginning west of iSie old 
dwelling house. His oldest brother, Joseph Wickes, chc^ iiie 
" Wickcliffe " dwelling and lands. He died soon after receiv- 
ing the property, and it became the property of his three daugh- 
ters, Mary Granger, Rachel Rock and Elizabeth Cumberford. 
Upon the death of Samuel Wickes, mentioned above, in 1729, 
his property was left to his five sons, Samuel, Benjamin, Simon, 
Joseph and Lambert, and to his three daughters, Martha, Re- 
becca and Ann.^^ 

The third of the " seven pioneers " was Col. Thomas Hynson. 
The fact that Colonel Hynson, who came to the Province of 
Maryland in 1651, was a partner in business with Major Joseph 
Wickes of " Wickcliffe " has already been mentioned, and while 
there are no papers in evidence to show how long this partner- 
ship lasted, it may be assumed that they continued their business 
arrangement until the death of Colonel Hynson, about 16'73. If 
there was a closer tie, that of blood, it is not shown by any pub- 
lic statentents they made. That they lived neighbors, with the 
greatest regard for one another is in evidence, and their public 
lives in the Province was of such a character as to lead one to 
. believe that they were mental equals as well as congenial com- 

" AwnapoUs Wills, Vol. xx, f . 417. 



SEVEN pioio3e:i^ of the oolokial 




i 



panions. In the Land Office, Annapolis/^ is a statement made 
bj Thomas Hynson on June 23, 1651, wi^icli recites: 

"Thomas Hynson demandeth 500 acies of land for trans- 
porting (into the Province of Marylaiidi iwoMj iffnglftmi) him- 
self, his wife and John, Grace and Ann Hynson, his children ; 
William Planes, Dunken Makalester and Elizabeth Bloomley, 
his three servants." A warrant was issued that sanle day to the 
Surveyor 'General of the Travmce to " lay out for Thomas Hyn- 
son on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay over against 
Love Point near the land demanded hy Mr.. iSpecy or ekewhere 
there not formerly taken up/' 

•From the same office a warrant was issued March 3rd, 
1658 to lay out for Thomas Hynson 3100 acres of land on the 
Eastern Shore. The surveyor's authority was based on the 
statement of " Thomas Hynson of this Province, Planter, hath 
transported, his wife and eleven persons more into our Prov- 
ince." He received on Eastern ISTeck Island 400 acres, which 
he called " Market Place." This property adjoined his friend. 
Major Joseph Wickes. On the back of the warrant is written, 
" I Thomas Hynson do assign unto Capt. Wickes 400 acres of 
this land in exchange of 400 acres now on record. Witness my 
hand this 29th March 1659." 

Of the 3100 acres which Thomas Hynson " demanded " 400 
acres was taken up in what is now Queen Anne's County on 
Keed's Creek, and was called " Cumberland." It is quite prob- 
able that Thomas Hynson made his home there, for shortly 
after Talbot County was formed out of the old " Isle of Kent 
County " in 1662, Thomas Hynson's son, Thomas Hynson, Jr. 
was appointed sheriff of that County, April 20th, 1666. 

Thomas Hynson and Joseph Wickes received a certificate of 
survey for 800 acres on September 22nd, 1658, which they 
called " Wickcliffe," which has already been mentioned. The 
next year, on September 23rd, 1659, Thomas Hynson received 
all of the balance ^* of the land, due him on his " demand," 

" Warrants, Liber A. B. H., p. 164. 

" Warrants, Liber 4, p. 210. " Warrants, Liber 4, p. 210. 



Ml MM,mtMm> mxfomoAX. MmMmrn, 

with the exception of 100 acres. It was at this time that lie 
received that great tract of land called " Hinchinghain " which 
contained 2200 acres of land, and which extended along the 
Eastern Shore of the 'Chesapeake Bay from Swan Creek to the 
lands now owned (1920) by the Tolchester Company. This 
was a grant of manorial size, but as 'Colonel Hynson took but 
very little interest in such matters, no record is made of it 
being used as a manor. This property was called " Hynson's 
Haven " in the certificate of survey, and no doubt the change 
to " Hinchingham " was one of Colonel Hynson's fancies. 

Colonel Hynson's wife was named Grace, and their children 
were John, Thomlas, Charles, Grace, who married that promi- 
nent Kent Islander, Thomas South, and Anna, who married 
first Benjamin Randall of Kent County, and second. Major 
Joseph Wickes. Upon the death of Major Wickes, as has already 
been stated, she married 'Colonel St. Leger Codd, of Shrewsbury. 
Parish, Kent County. 'Colonel Hynson was a member of the 
Provincial Assembly held at Patuxent on the 20th of October 
1654, and among the Assemblymen was his neighbor, Joseph 
Wickes, and friend Edward Lloyd. ■'■^ He was also in the 
Assembly in 1659, the year in which he received his grant for 
" Hinchingham." He was " High Sheriff " of Kent County in 
February 1655 ^® and at that time he was thirty-five years of 
age. He was a man of wide acquaintance, and hi« connections 
with his relatives in England were kept up by correspondence, 
some of which is on file in the public records of the Province. 
He died about 1668, and the two aons, Thcanas and John, were 
granted letters of administration on his estate.^^ 

Among the items paid out by the sons, was one to Dr. Eich- 
ard Tilghman who attended him in his last illness. They paid 
him 4,621 lbs. of tobacco for "care and physick." Another 
item shows to what trouble the two sons were put in those early 
days, when they were obliged to take out their administration 
papers. The charge gainst tiie estate is for 975 p(Minds of 

« Arch. Md., Vol. i, p. 39. " Hanson's Old Kent, 

" Annapolis, Testamentary Proe., Vol. v, p. 524. 



tobacco " for 16 days and three men to row boat to St. Mary's 
to take out letters of Administration." Still anotber item is 
" for 10,446 pounds of tobacco paid to Major Joseph Wickes as 
his wife's (Ann Hjnson Randall) child's part of tbe estate." 
Tbe sons distributed tbe property to tbe beirs, paid for tbeir 
" brotber Charles' schooling," and received a release from 
Philip Calvert, then Secretary of the Province, on tbe 24th 
of July, 16Y3.^^ Thomas Hynson niade " oath to tbe account 
above, he being the person who kept the accounts for himself 
and his brother ; John Hynson also made oath that bis brotber 
Thomas Hynson had kept a true account because it was allowed 
by his brothers-in-law Joseph Wickes and Thomas South." 

Col. Th(Hnas Ringgold, the fourth " pioneer " and ihe fii"st 
of the name to come to Maryland, as I have mentioned, was a 
close friend of 1h.e other Kent County pioneers, Major' Joi^^ 
Wickes, and Cd. Thomas Hyafton. 

Just a few miles up from Eastern "Neck Islan^ Thomas 
Ringgold had surveyed for him a tract of 1200' acres lying 
directly on the Obesapeake Bay, tb which he gave the name of 
" Huntingfield." This 'beautiful tract is now one of the show 
places of Kent Oounty, and is an ideal location for a home. 
The Chesapeake Bay, the Patapsco, the Chester, and the Gun- 
powder Rivers, all lend their charm to the delightful view. 
The ancestral home of the Ringgolds has been the scene of 
many delightful functions, and the assemblage has often been 
made up of the most distinguished of the Colonists. 

It was in the early days of Kent County that Thomas Ring- 
gold came to Maryland bringing his two sons, John and James. 
He received iibe grant for " Huntingfield " under date of July 
12th, 1659, and at once- entered into tbe civil and administra- 
tive life of the neighborhood with vigor. 'No name in the long 
list of Maryland families stands higher for honor than that of 
Ringgold. It is from that family that th^ distinguished Chief 

" Annapolis, Testamentary Proc, Vol. v, p. 528. 



I 



246 



MAEXLAITD HISTOEICAI. MAGAZINE. 



Justice of tjbe United States Supreme Court, Edward Douglas 
iWliite, is descended. 

Thomas Einggold was born about 1612, and the records sbow 
tbat lie came to tlie Province in 1651, at wliicb time lie stated 
that be was forty years of age, and while the exact date of his 
death is not now in evidence, it is clearly shown that he was 
living in 16Y2. In 1666 he was sued in the Provincial O'ourt 
by his neighbor, Col. Thomas Hynson, who sought to get a title 
to 600 acres of " Huntingfield," to which part of "Hunting- 
field" an overlapping warrant had been i^ued in error to 
Colonel Hynson. The records of that "Court are interesting : 

" After which the board having heard and seen their allega- 
tion on both sides could not find any cause for suit, whereupon 
the defendant, Thomas Ringgold craves a ' non suit,' which was 
granted with the charges following: 

Lbs. 

To 10 days allowance for two witnesses @ 

30 pounds oi tobacco 300 

" Attorney's fees 60 

" Kon Suit 300 



660 " 

Thus the suit was ended and Thomas Ringgold retained the 
property to which he held a clear title. He served at St. 
Mary's in 1658 as foreman of the Grand Jury of the Province, 
and he held other important trusted places in the Provincial 
Government. 

In 1661 he gave to his two sons, John and J ames, his " Hunt- 
ingfield " property, and John Ringgold who stated in a depo- 
sition in July, 1656, that he was then twenty years of age, left 
by his will, April 25th, 16Y2 to Elizabeth Oook, his daughter: 

" M-j 300 acres called ' Huntingfield,' she to possess and 
enjoy the same during her natural life, and if she shall be 
niarried still to enjoy the land whilst her husband behaves 
himself ' sivily/ peacably and lovingly towards my brother 
James Ringgold, but upon any just orration of offense or wrong 



SEVEN PIONEEKS OF THE COLONIAL EASTERN SHOKE. 247 

to my brother James Ringgold, ^lieii my brotlier to cause tLem 
both, to depart peaceably from my land and next after tbem tbe 
land to come to my conzen Barbara Ringgold, (sbe was bis 
brotlier J ames Ringgold's dangbter, and was bis niece and not 
couzen!) and if sbe dyetb without beirs then to come to my 
conzen (nepbew) Tbomas Ringgold and bis beirs forever." 

This is entered to sbow tbe brotherly love that existed be- 
tween John and James Ringgold, and what we learn of James 
tbrongh both private and public records, he must have been a 
very devout, upright 'Christian gentleman, with a very lovable 
disposition. 

James Ringgold who became by appointment Major James 
Ringgold, was by far the most prominent of the Ringgolds of 
" Huntingfield " prior to 1700. He was much interested in 
the affairs of his county, and was instrumental in having the 
Court House for Kent County located at the " port of entry 
town "New Yarmouth." This old town, now long since aban- 
doned and lost to sight, was laid out on James Ringgold's land, 
in accordance with the Act of Assembly providing for " Some 
necessary Ports and Towns" and confirmed by later Act of 
1683. 

It was built at tbe place where James Ringgold had prior to 
1680 given tbe land to tbe Commissioners of Justice for Kent 
County, on which they bad built the Oounty Court House and 
Jail. To understand tbe conditions surrounding tbe building of 
the Court House at IsTew Yarmouih, I will recite the facts whidb 
produce the singular condition of affairs that were brought 
about by the Proclamation of Charles Calvert, dated 6th of 
June 1674 ^® erecting Cecil County, named for his father, and 
which proclamation included all of the present county of Kent 
within its bounds. He appointed on the same day, the " Com- 
mission for Peace " for Cecil County, naming on the Commis- 
sion, Thomas Howell, ifatbaniel Stiles, John Yanheck, Augus- 
tine Herman, Henry Ward, John Gilbert, Abraham Wild, 
Joseph Wickes, Thomas South, and James Binggold. 

' » Arch. Md., Vol. xv, f . 38. 



248 



MAEYLAND HISTOKICAl, MAGAZINE. 



The three last named were living in that part of Kent County 
that was included in the new County of Cecil, as called for \>j 
the Proclamation, and these three gentlemen immediately pre- 
sented a protest to the Lord Proprietary agaiiMst this ctaifisca- 
tion of old Kent County. So vigorous was the protest, that on 
the 19th of June, two weeks after the issue of the first pro- 
clamation, Charles Calvert, then Governor, issued a second 
proclamation, which stated " upon further consideration hereof 
it is thought most necessary that so much as was formerly 
added to Kent County doe stUl remaine and helong to the said 
County as before notwithstanding that part of the said pro- 
clamation ! " 

On the strength of this change in the boundary lines by the 
Governor, he issued on July 2nd, 16Y4, a new Commission 
of Peace for each of the counties, namling for Oecil County, 
Captain Thomas Howell, Augustine Herman, Henry Ward, 
John Van Heck, Abraham Wild, Joseph Hopkins, William 
Tolson, and John Gilbert. 

He named for Kent County on the same date,^*^ Major Jo- 
seph Wickes, Thomas South, James Ringgold, John Hynson, 
Henry Hozier, Arthur Wright, Tobias Wells and William 
Lawrence. 

On the back of the paper authorizing this new Commission 
of Peace for Kent County is written " I do hereby order that 
the place for holding your County Court be in some part of 
Eastern Keck and not upon the Island as formerly. (Signed) 
Charles Calvert." 

The following year, in August 1675, James Einggold and 
Samuel Tovey petitioned the Lord Proprietary to lay out a 
town on their lands at the head of Gray's Inn Oreek and this 
petition was followed up by James Ringgold's generous offer 
to the Oymmiasioners of P«ace for Kent County of land on 
which to build the County Court House and jail. The official 
document to the Lord Proprietary verifying the foregoing 
statements is as follows: 



* Arch. Md., Vol. xv, p. 42. 



^ Arch. Md., Vol. xv, pp. 350-352. 



SEVEN PIOITEEES OF THE COLOITIAL EASTEBlSr SHOSE. 2M 



" Kent, Jiily tiie 13, 1 W. 

''May it please your Lordsliip: 

We tlie Justices of tHis County Court taving had tlie per- 
usal of a letter from your Lorddiip directed to Major James 
Ringgold dated the sixth day of April last past (1680) wherein 
your Lordship hath signified that the Court House and Prison 
of this County ought to he cenTeyed to your Lordship for the 
u«e and benefit of this County, in complyance of which we doe 
humhly present unto jmi Lordiiiip the copy of a conreyance 
drawn by the expert^t OouBcil we could procure, which if your 
Lorddiip shall thiui: it not a suflB:ci€ffl.t conveyance we humbly 
desire your Lordship would be pleased to order one of your 
clerks to send up a conveyance which your Lordship shall 
approve of, which shall be willingly and readily signed and 
performed by 

" Tour Lordships most humble servants 

James Ringgold 
Henry Hozier 
Samuel Tovey 
Cornelius Comegys 
William Lawrence." 

" To the Commissioners of Kent County Court: 

" Gentlemen : 

" Yours of the 13th of July last to his Lordship hath been 
perused as also the draught of the conveyance inclosed which 
is well approved of and now returned you to be executed in due 
form of law. 

iSigned: John Llewellin, 

Clerk Council." 

The above mentioned " conveyance " which was given in full 
in the records of the Province stated that James Ringgold " for 
the consideration hereinafter named hath granted, etc. unto the 
said Lord Baltimore all that Building lately erected by his 
Lordship's Justices of Kent County, etc., being built only for a 



250 



MAKTLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 



Court House for the said County, together •witli a Prison 
House near adjoining being also lately erected and aho all tliat 
lot of ground to the said Court House, belonging as the same 
is now laid out, etc., "which said Court House, Prison and lot 
of land are situated in the town of INTew Yarmouth in the said 
County, etc., etc." 

Though the hounds of the County were fixed hy the Procla- 
mation of June 19th, 1674, as previously mentioned, there was 
still sufficient strength in the opposition party, mostly repre^ 
sentatives from Cecil County, to cause the Provincial Council 
in 1682 to issue the following statement "Upper House 
(Council) 13th May, 1682, His Lordship dolii intend to add 
Eastern 'Neck to Cecil County, hy which means the Arms (mil- 
itary) in the custody of Major Ringgold, will also be within 
that County and they then have no pretense to refuse payment 
of the moiety of the charge." This too, in spite of the fact that 
the Proprietary had accepted the land and buildings in New 
Yarmouth, and indicated his pleasure at the then supposedly 
satisfactory arrangement for a County Court House for Kent 
County. This is an early example of Eastern iShore politics. 

One incident in the early affairs of the Province gives us 
an insight into the conditions under which the Colonists lived. 
The Indians had given so much trouble by their depredations 
and in several places attempted assassinations that the authori- 
ties appointed places in each county where the inhabitants 
could go to trade with the Indians. Major Einggold's. planta- 
tion was designated on ISTovember 13th, 1682,^3 place 
where the inhabitants of Kent County should go to trade with 
the Indians. 

Major Ringgold continued to manifest his interest in public 
affairs, and served the County in some official capacity to the 
year of his death, in 1686. His will filed at Chestertown, and 
recorded in the Land Office at Annapolis September 28th, 

" Arch. Md., Vol. vn, p. 309. 
^Arch. Md,, Vol. vii, p. 382. 
Annapolis Wills, Liber 4, p. 232. 



A 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 251 

1686, disposes of a large estate, both real and personal prop- 
erty. The " Plains," 600 acres, was left to his two sons, Wil- 
liam and J ohn ; to Thomas and James he left " Hxintingfield," 
his " Dwelling Plantation " ; to his youngest son, Charles, he 
gave " Einggold's Fortune " which lies near St Paul's Chiarch 
in Kent County. 

In that portion of his will in which he leaves his son James 
part of his " Dwelling Plantation " he states that " James is 
now heir apparent of lands of Captain Robert Vaughan, late 
of Kent Oounty, being the oldest son of the now only daughter 
of him the said Vaughan." Major James Ringgold married 
Mrs. Mary Vaughan Burton, the widow of Edward Burton, 
and the daughter of Captain Robert Vaughan. 

(To 6e conimmd.^ 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON 

Edward S. Delajplaine 
Part Sixth 

CHAPTER IX 

In THE First Continental Congress 

Up to this time, Mr. Johnson's public work had been confined 
to the borders of his own Colony. But on the 6th of September, 
1774, he took a seat in Congress and his career in the broader 
field of politics began. Three of the Maryland delegates — 
Chase, Paca, and Goldsborough — were on hand when Congress 
convened the day before. So was George Washington, who 
journeyed up from Mount Vernon in company with two of his 
colleagues, Edmund Pendleton and Patrick Henry. But the 
remaining member from Maryland, the venerable Matthew 
Tilghman, did not put in his appearance until a week later. 
Peyton Randolph, who was chosen president of Congress; 
4 



252 ' MAKYIiAJTD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



Kicliard Bland, and Eicliard Heniy Lee, completed the dele- 
gation from tlie Old Dominion. The five delegates from 
Maryland and the eix frem Virginia blended -wisdom with 
eloquence, prudence with courage, and oaQservatism with youth- 
ful fire. In Carpenters' Hall, Johnson saw about him a bril- 
liant array of Colonial statesmen, the most powerful orators, 
the most distinguished leaders, men of the most commanding 
ability then to be found in all America. !l^t with a long 
experience in the Provincial Assembly, he was well equipped 
to play a conspicuous role in the proceedings of the General 
Congress. His keen, analytical mind, his sound judgment and 
common sense, his unflinching courage and incorruptible in- 
tegrity brought him mimediately forward as one of the leaders 
of the House. 

The day Johnson arrived, Congress determined upon the 
plan to select a committee " to state the rights of the Colonies 
in general, the several instances in which those rights are vio- 
lated or infringed, and the means most proper to be pursued 
for obtaining a restoration of tbem." And on the next day 
it was decided to place on the " First," or Great," Com- 
mittee, as it was called, two delegates from each Colony. One 
of Maryland's representatives was Thomas Johnson, Jr. The 
following were the members of the committee : 

Massachusetts, John Adams and Samuel Adams; Rhode 
Island, Samuel Ward and Stephen Hopkins ; 'New Hampshire, 
John Sullivan and N^athaniel Folsom ; Connecticut, Roger Sher- 
man and Eliphalet Dyer; I^ew York, John Jay and James 
Duane; New Jersey, William Livingston and John Dehart; 
Pennsylvania, Edward Biddle and Joseph Galloway ; Delaware, 
Caesar Rodney and Thomas McKean; Maryland, Thomas 
Johnson and Rlobert Alexander ; Virginia, Edmund Pendleton 
and Richard Henry Lee; South Carolina, John Rutledge and 
Thomas Lynch. 

The appointment of Mr. Johnson on this committee gave him 
an opportunity to come in close contact with a score 'of the most 
eminent statesmen of the New World. With harmony so es^en- 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHITSOIT. 



253 



tial, they faced a task of supreme importance to America. 
Jolm Adaans said that during their first day's conference 
(September 8) the Great Committee had " a most iicgenious, 
entertaining debate." Business cm the floor of Congress was 
entirely suspended until the 14th of September; and the ses- 
sions of the Committee were so pKJtrfusted that it was Vhispered 
in many quarters that the balance of the members were begin- 
ning to grow " jealous." But finally the Committee reached 
a decision and on Beptember 22 reported fte Bights of the 
A mericam Colomes — ^rights based upon the laws of Nature, the 
principles of the English Constitution, and Charters and Com- 
pacts — and two days later the Infrmgements of American 
Bights. The first important -duty of Congr^s had been per- 
formed. 

The delegates were now ready to determine upon a common 
course of action. The first proposal was to stop all importations 
from the parent realm. This plan had been strongly endorsed 
in the Maryland Convention at Annapolis three months before ; 
yet the Maryland delegates proceeded with caution. Although 
as ardently devoted to the American cause as any patriot in the 
Colonies, Johnson remained conservative and prudent in deal- 
ing with the soul-stirring problems which appeared before him 
at Philadelphia. Both he and George Washington advocated a 
courageous statement of American rights ; but both, according 
to r. N^. Thorpe, viewed the controversy, like John Adams, 
with the lawyer's eye : they did not display the impetuosity of 
Patrick Henry and the flaming zeal of Richard Henry Lee. 
Concerning the course Johnson and Washington pursued at 
Philadelphia, Mr. Thorpe says : 

" The Maryland delegates, Matthew Tilghman, Thomas 
Johnson, William Paea and iSamuel Chase, were neither united 
nor divided on any administrative measures, but yet were unani- 
mously desirous of formulating the American cause more 
clearly. Thomas Johnson, the ablest man among them, was not 

"Francis Newton Thorpe, The Constitutional History of the United 
States, Vol. i, «2-84. 



/ 



254 



MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



ready to go further than John Adams. The Maryland dele- 
gates, however, were instructed ' to effect one general plan of 
conduct bearing on the conmiemal connection of the Colonies 
with the mother country.' . . . Washington, one of the Vir- 
ginia members, thus early appearing in the councils of his 
country, was not committed to radical measures, for as yet he 
was confident that harmony womld ultimately prevail and he 
did not share the atrong opinions of Henry, J ohn Rutledge and 
/ Samuel Adams. Like Jofen Adams and Thomas Jdbnson, he 

took a l^al rather than an @ooiM>mic view of public affairs." 

The non-importation agreement was assented to rather readily 
and on September 2T it was unanimously resolved, " That 
there be no importation, from and after December 1, 1774, 
into British America from Great Britain or Ireland, of any 
goods, or from knj other place of any goods as shall have been 
. exported from Great Britain or Ireland ; and that no such goods, 
wares or merchandise imported after December 1 be used or 
purchased." 

But non-exportation brought forth, considerable opposition. 
All the delegates realized that this plan would be distasteful 
to Oreat Britain, but the Southern delegates maintained that 
their Colonies would thereby be injured more seriously than 
the others. jN'orth Carolina exported pitch, tar and turpentine ; 
South Carolina large quantities of rice and indigo; and Vir- 
ginia tobacco. Unless these products could be shipped to the 
foreign markets, the Southern statesmen insisted lhat their 
Colonies would suffer disastrously. Samuel Chase, coming 
from a "tobacco colony," gravely predicted that non-exporta- 
tion would send the entire country into bankruptcy. But all 
the delegates realized that harmony should prevail ; and when 
South Carolina acceded after securing an exception of rice, 
Virginia withdrew her oppc^itioai, Maryland supported the 
measure and ISTorth Carolina rapidly fell in line. Thereupon, 
on September 30, it was resolved " That from and after Sep- 
tember 10, 1775, the exportation of all merchandise and every 
commodity to Great Britain, Ireland and the West Indies, 



THE LIFE cm TMOUm jrOSMOlT. 



255 



ought to cease, unless the grievances of America are redressed 
before that time." 

Then came Johnson's appointment on a committee to devise 
a plan to make the resolutions eifective. It was agreed in the 
non-exportation resolution that the Annapolis attorney, together 
with Thomas Gushing (Massachusetts), Isaac Low (New 
York), Thomas MifEin (Pennsylvania) and Richard H: Lee 
(Virginia), should constitute a committee " to bring in a plan 
for carrying into effect the non-importation, non-consumption, 
and non-exportation resolved on." Recommendations were 
made by this committee for an American Association, — a course 
which Mr. Johnson had warmly espoused in the first Maryland 
Convention. 

Mr. J ohnson, it seems, was conspicuous in the debates on the 
severance of commercial relations with the mother country. 
This fact can be inferred from the statement made hy John 
Adams on October 10, lY74, that Johnson of Maryland pos- 
sessed " an extensive knowledge of trade as well as law." 
Adams' opinion of Johnson is contained in the following esti- 
mate of the more prominent members of the first Congress : 

" The deliberations of the Congress are spun out to an im- 
measurable length. There is so much wit, sense, learning, 
acuteness, subtlety, eloquence, &c. among fifty gentlemen, each 
of whom has been habituated to lead and guide in his own 
Province, that an immensity of time is spent unnecessarily. 
Johnson of Maryland has a clear and a cool head, an extensive 
knowledge of trade as well as law. He is a deliberating man, 
but not a shining orator; his passions and imagination don't 
appear enough for an orator ; his reason and penetration appear, 
but not his rhetoric. Galloway, Duane, and Johnson are sensi- 
ble and learned, but cold speakers. Lee, Henry, and Hooper, 
are the orators ; Paca is a deli'berator too ; Chase speaks warmly ; 
Mifflin is a sprightly and spirited speaker ;. John Rutledge don't 
exceed in learning or oratory, though he is a rapid speaker; 
young Edward Rutledge is young and zealous, a little unsteady 
and injudicious, but very unnatural and affected as a speaker ; 



M6 JiLLXtLAMD HISTORICAL UA&AZms. 

Dyer and Sherman speak often and long, but very heavily and 
clumsily." ^® 

The observation of Mr. Adams that Delegate Johnson was 
" not a shining orator," in comparison with Patrick Henry and 
Lee, recalls the contrast Thomas Jefferson made fifty years 
later between the delegates from Maryland and the Virginia 
representatives in the Continental Congress. When Daniel 
Webster visited Jefferson lat Monticello toward the close of the ' 
year 1824, the aged Virginian told that distinguished orator 
from IsTew England that Patrick Henry and Lee " opened the 
general subject " in the Continental Congress with such grip- 
ping. eloquence that Samuel Chase and William Paca, delegates 
from Maryland, shook their heads and said : " We shall not 
be wanted here. Those gentlemen from Virginia will be able 
to do everything without us." But, Jefferson explained, neither 
Henry nor Lee was a man of business, and, having made strong 
and eloquent general speeches, they had done all they could. 
A slightly different account says that after Henry and Lee had 
made their maiden speeches in Congress, Mr. Chase said to one 
of his colleagues from Maryland : " We might as well go home. 
We are not able to legislate with these men." But later, during 
the debates on American commerce, Chase declared : " After 
all, I find these are but men, and, in the mere matters of busi- 
ness, very common men." 

Manifestly, " reason and penetration " at this time were as 
much in demand as " passions and imagination." At least, 
when Congress determined to make a plea to the King for 
reconciliation, the deliberating man, with the " clear and cool 
head," from Maryland, was again called upon to render assist- 
ance in the preparation of the paper. It was on the first day 
of October, 1774, when Congress unanimously resolved, " That 
a loyal address to his majesty be prepared, dutifully requestiag 
the royal attention to the grievances that alarm and distress his 
majesty's faithful subjects in !N"orth-America, and entreating 

The Works of John Adams, Vol. n, 395-6. 

George T. Curtis, Life of Daniel Welster, Vol. I, 588. 



THE LIFE OF THOMA« #^Hir®OH^. 



257 



his majesty's gracious interposition for the removal of such 
grievances; thereby to restore between Great Britain and the 
Colonies that harmony so necessary to the happiness of the 
British Empire, and so ardently desired by all America." 
Whereupon Congress placed the burden of the work upon Rich- 
ard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry of Virginia, John Adams 
of Massachusetts Bay, John Eutledge of 'South Carolina, and 
Thomas Johnson, Jr., of Maryland. Tor several weeks these 
five American statesmen devoted profound thought to the pre- 
paration of the docum,tent, which they desired to be respectful 
to the Crown and at the same time clear and emphatic. John 
Adams says that on the night of October 11 after dining with 
Caesar Eiodney, Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas John- 
son, and others, at the home of Mr. McKean, he went to Patrick 
Henry's " lodgings," to discuss the petition to the King. When 
Congress selected the conunittee, ability had been recognized, but 
geographical distribution had been sadly overloaked. Adams 
was the only iN'orthem man on it. Lee, Henry, Eutledge, and 
Johnson came from lite South. The Central Colonies — the 
most backward in general sentiment — were not repteseuted. 
The report from the committee did not prove acceptable to the 
Middle Colonies ; it was apparent that a mistake had beien made. 
Accordingly, John ISckinson, of Pennsylvania, who had en- 
tered Congress a few days before, ims added to the committee. 
On October 24 a second draft was reported, and two days later 
the Petition of Congress to the King's Most Excellent Majesty 
was signed by the delegates and prepared for transmission to 
Europe. Included among the signatures were those of Mat. 
Tilghman, Th^ Johnson Jun^,, Wm. Paca, and Samuel Chase. 
Like the Great Committee's report of American Rights and 
Infringements, the Address to King George III was a masterly 
presentation of the American cause, which "when laid upon 
the table of the House of Lords, drew forth the splendid 
encomium of Chatham." 

The documents drafted by the members of the first Congress 
are state papers of great historical value. They will ever be 



2 SB MurrLdLiTS mwromoju maqazinb. 

regarded as among the ablest specimens of practical talent and 
wisdom in American politics. And while the Colonies were 
represented at this momentous session by statesmen of the high- 
est order, none, according to the comparative estimates of the 
statesmen who served in it, had a keener vision or a firmer 
grasp of affairs than Johnson. In a body of more than fifty 
men representing over 2,000,000 people, Johnson .had the dis- 
tinction, enjoyed by only one other delegate (Richard Henry 
Lee), of serving on all three of the following committees of 
supreme importance: (1) the committee "to state the rights," 
or the Great Committee; (2) the committee to devise a plan to 
carry non-importation and non-exportation into effect; and (3) 
the committee to frame the Petition to the King. Very suc- 
cintly one authority thus characterizes the leading statesmen 
in the first Congress : 

" l^ew England presented, in John Sullivan, vigor ; in Roger 
Sherman, sterling sense and integrity; in Thomas Cushing, 
commercial knowledge; in John Adams, large capacity for 
public affairs ; in Samuel Adams, a great character, with influ- 
ence and power to organize. The Middle Colonies presented, 
in Philip Livingston, the merchant prince of enterprise and 
liberality; in John Jay, rare public virtue, juridical learning, 
and classic taste; in WiUiam Livingston, progressive ideas 
tempered by conservatism ; in J ohn Dickinson, ' The Immortal 
Farmer,' erudition and literary ability ; in Caesar Rodney and 
Thomas MoKean, working power; in James Duane, timid 
Whiggism, halting, but keeping true to the cause; in Joseph 
Galloway, downright Toryism, seeking control, and at length 
going to the enemy. The Southern Colonies presented, in 
Thomas Johnson, the grasp of a statesman ; in iSamuel Chase, 
activity and boldness; in the Rutledges, wealth and accom- 
plishment; in Christopher Gadsden, the genuine American; 
and in the Virginia delegation, an illustrious group, — in Rich- 
ard Bland, wisdom; in Edmund Pendleton, practical talent; 

^2 FrothiaglKiift, The Ei»e of the EepiMie &f the United Btaiwg, Chap- 
ter IX. 



THE LIFE 01' TSOMJtS ##KW#@F. 259 

in Peyton Randolph, experience in legislation; in Richard 
Henry Lee, statesmanship in union with high culture ; in Pat- 
rick Henry, genius and eloquence; in Washington, justice and 
patriotism. ' If,' said Patrick Henry, ' you speak of solid in- 
formation and sound judgment, Washington unquestionably is 
the greatest man of them all.' " 

J ohn Quincy Adams and Charles Francis Adams, in editing 
the works of John Adams,^^ refer particularly to Thomas 
J ohnson, along with J ohn Dickinson, Caesar Rodney, and sev- 
eral others of their calibre as having " sincerity of purpose 
and cautious judgment as well as practical capacity, which 
would not have discredited the most experienced statesmen of 
their day." 

Congress having adjourned on October 26, 1YY4, Mr. John- 
son returned to his home in Annapolis; and on November 9th 
was placed on a Committee of Correspondence for Anne Arun- 
del county and authorized to attend the iSecond Provincial 
Convention. Assembling on the 21st of ISTovember, this body 
approved unanimously the proceedings of Congress, resolved 
that every person in Maryland ought strictly to observe the 
Articles of Association, and selected Tilghman, Johnson, Chase 
and Paca, Charles Carroll of CarroUton, Charles Carroll bar- 
rister and John Hall, on a Provincial Committee of Corre- 
spondence. 

The winter, which was now setting in, saw Maryland pre- 
paring with great haste for hostilities which seemed almost 
inevitable. 

CHAPTER X 

In the Second Continental Congeess. IN'ominates 
Washington Commandek-in-Chief 

Everywhere the Colonists awaited with bated breath the next 
move itom abroad. Frequently holding meetings, they charged 
committees of their own selection to keep constant vigil for 

^ The Life of John Adams, Vol. i, 217-8. 



260 



MMXTLAMB HISTOEICAIi MAmZlWl^. 



. developments. For example, in the dead of winter (on Jan- 
uary 16, 1776) a mass meeting was held at Annapolis, at whicli 
Johnson was placed on a Committee of Observation for Anne 
Arundel county. Parliament, indignant and determined to 
retaliate for the interdiction of commerce, ordered General 
Gage to reduce the Colonists by force. The stirring ante- 
bellum days Eidpath describes in the following words which 
ring with martial music : " There was no longer any hope of 
a peaceable adjustment. The mighty arm of Great Britain 
was stretched out to smite and crush the sons of the Pilgrims. 
The Colonists were few and feeble ; but they were men of iron 
wills who had made up their minds to die for Liberty. It was 
now the early spring of 1775, and the day of battle was at 
hand." The Maryland Convention reassembled on April 24th 
and on the 28th received the first word of bloodshed. The 
Maryland leaders of the patriot cause now had a new text from 
which to enthuse the people. As the pall of Lexington spread 
over the land, the people prepared more eagerly for defense. 
!N^o event thus far had so strongly cemjented the bonds of devo- 
tion to the American cause. The first volley of the Revolution 
had fired the whole country. 

The second session of Congress was approaching, and the 
Maryland Convention proceeded to the choice of seven repre- 
sentatives. The five patriot leaders who had served so ably in 
the first Congress — Tilghman, Johnson, Paca, Chase, and 
Alexander — ^were authorized to return to the second. To the 
delegation were added John Hall and Thomas Stone. Any 
three or more were authorized to join with the sister Colonies 
in any measures deemed for the defense of the Ameri- 

can Colonies. 

Mr. Johnson appeared in the State House at Philadelphia 
on Wednesday, May 10th, l'TT5, when the second Continental 
Congress convened. With him from Maryland were Delegates 
Samuel Chase, William Paca, John Hall and Matthew Tilgh- 
man. A few days later Mr. Goldsborough and Mr. iStone ar- 
rived. The Maryland delegation was now complete. 



On the 2d of June a message arrived from Massaclmsetts 
describing " butcheries and devastations " by the royal soldiers 
and asking advice concerning the establishment of a Civil 
Government. It was then that John Adams delivered his 
speech urging the people in each Colony to assume the functions 
of Government. " The pride of Britain, flushed with late 
triumphs and conquests, their infinite contempt of all the power 
of America, with an insolent, arbitrary Scotch faction, with a 
Bute and Mansfield at their head for a Ministry," he said, 
would surely force the Americans to call forth every energy 
and resource of the country. He advocated a Confederacy, 
like that of Greece, declaring " man would think of con- 
solidating this vast Continent under one ISTational Govern- 
ment ! " Furthermore he advised that American emissaries 
should be sent to Europe to seek aid at the Courts of France 
and Spain. On the following day (June 3, 1775), Congress 
resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole " to take into 
further consideration the state of America." After discussion, 
it was decided that a committee of five should recommend the 
proper advice that ought to be given to the Convention of 
Massachusetts Bay. Johnson was one of the members chos^ 
by ballot to frame this important report. The members of ihe 
©ommittee were: John Jay, of 'New York; James Wils^, o£ 
Pennsylvania Th^ias johns<m, Jr., of Maryland; Eichard 
Henry Lee, of Virginia ; and John E-utiledge, of South Carolina. 
These five able leaders, after xjonf erring with the delega*^ from 
Massachusetts, drafted a set of recommendations which were 
read to the House on the 7th of June. Two days later it was 
resolved, in substance, that Congress should advise the Conven- 
tion of Massachusetts that the offices of governor and lieutenant- 
governor should be considered vacant and that the people should 
take possession of the Government until the royal officers acted 
in accordance with the ancient charter. 

On the 3d of June, Johnson was also chosen to take part in 
framing a final appeal for reconciliation to the Crown. Two of 
his coUeaguee <m '&tg committee — John Eutledge and John 



262 



MABYLAIfD MmTOmCJkX. MAAAZJMl^. 



Dickinson — ^had served with him in drafting a similar paper 
in 1774. The two new members were John Jay and Benjamin 
Franklin. Thus came Johnson's first opportunity to come in 
close contact officially with " Poor Richard." The chosen five 
were authorized to prepare a " humble and dutiful " petition 
to the King, with a view — forlorn though it may have been — 
of opening negotiations for peace. So, during the month of 
June, the menijbers of the conmiittee gave careful thought to 
the petition. 

!l^ut, in the meantime, the legislators at Philadelphia did not 
rest supine. While they earnestly hoped for peace, they con- 
sidered liberty more important, and immediately took -steps for 
defense. They determined to call upon the Committees of 
Pennsylvania, !N"ew Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware to eend 
to Philadelphia without delay sulphur and saltpeter for gun- 
powder. Johnson and Dr. Franklin were again chosen together 
on June 10 " io derise ways and means to introduce the manu- 
facture of salt petre in these Ckxlonies," their aisocifufces being 
Robert Treat Paine, of Massachusetts; Philip Schuyler, of 
l^ew York; and Richard Henry Lee. They also realized tiiat 
no time 'wm to be k)st is. semdiug ®ff riflemen to join the camp 
at Boston, and provision was. made on the 14th of June to 
organize troops immediately to serve for a period of one year. 

But the OOTumander-in-Ohief of the Continental forces had 
not yet been selected. Many names had been mentioned and 
it seemed inevitable that serious difficulty would be met before 
a -choice could be made that would be satisfactory to all. To 
many of the members, it appeared most appropriate that the 
Army of 'New England should be commanded by a ITorthern 
general ; to place it under the ccHnfmand of a Southerner, they 
argued, ivould be " an experiment of delicacy and hazard." 
On the other hand, the South — particularly Virginia — ^was very 
proud of its heritage and from an early day exhibited a marked 
suspicion, if not a jealousy, of the motives of the ISlew England 
Colonies. 

George Washington was then attending the sessions of Con- 



« 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHJVTSOJST. 263 

gress in uniform — a fact which lias led sonte writers to believe 
that he was modestly announcing his candidacy for some mili- 
tary office in the Continental Army. Although virile and cour- 
ageous, and a good soldier, Col. Washington was opposed- for 
Commander-in-Chief by many of the delegates for the ^pr^© 
command. Many of the "New England delegates, of course, 
were openly agi-inst him. The Adamses seemed to be favorable 
to his appointment, but other members of the Massachusetts 
delegation held tenaciously to the view that a jNorthem man 
should be chosen. Then, too, some of the delegates from the 
8outh were not so " strong " for Colonel Washington. Indeed, 
fiome of the members of the Virginia delegation were " very 
cool " toward his appointment ; while at least one was " very 
clear and full against it." It is safe to say, however, that 
" Dick " Lee and " Tom " Johnson were, from the very begin- 
ning, among the warmest supporters of their intimate friend 
from Mount Vernon. All three having been born in the same 
year along the Potomac, their friendship had grown stronj^er 
with each advancing year; and Lee and Johnson were in a 
position to appreciate from close contact the wonderful quali- 
ties of Washington as a man and as a soldier. 

Finally, in an effort to test the sentimlent of Congress, John 
Adams offered a motion to adopt the forces then besieging the 
British troops in Boston as the Continental Army, and in sup- 
port of that motion casually remarked that it wouldn't be diffi- 
cult to secure a Commander-in-Chief with the necessary quali- 
fications, for such a man, he felt sure, could be found on the 
floor of Congress. The allusions became so pointed that Col. 
Washington, who was occupying a seat near the door, darted 
with characteristic modesty into the library. Adams' remarks 
provoked mjany expressions of open hostility to Washington. 
Thomas Cushing, of Massachusetts, avowed opposition to him, 
and warned that if a man from below the Potomac were picked 
for the position of Commander-in-Chief, the soldiers, and, in- 
deed, the people of Nbw England generally, would be greatly 
discontented^ Mr^ Pa^ expressed a strong preference for 



264: MABYLAND Hlffl^EICAL MAGAZINE. 

General Artemiis Ward, an old collie clmm, who was already 
then in command of aU the New England forces. Among 
otibers who declared that the selection of George Washington 
would he highly inexpedient " was Roger Sherman, of Ccm- 
nectient. Mr. Pendleton explained that to place his colleague 
at the head of the Army of tbe Revolution would be an "unwise 
course." The general trend of the argunsent was that the Con- 
tinental forces were composed entirely of IN'ew England men, 
that they already had a Gmi^al of tl:^ir own, that he. General 
Ward, was very satisfactory, and that the American riflemen 
had proved themselves aWe to imprison the British — ikm "#K8 
all that could be expected of them at this time. 

George Washington's friends, observing the hostile sentiment, 
postponed final decision of the question. Overpowered for the 
time by the sense of responsibility, Washington is said to have 
declared to Patrick Henry: "I fear that this day will mark 
the down-fall of my reputation ! " But his friends remained 
stanch for him and they made strenuous efforts out of doors to 
swing the delegations in line. 

According to James Johnson, of Baltimore, one of Governor 
Johnson's nephews, who claimed that he heard the history of 
the nomination repeatedly from his uncle's lips,^* Delegate Lee 
told Delegate Johnson that while he was in favor of George 
Washington, he preferred that the nomination be made by a 
member from some other Colony, as the delegates from Virginia 
felt " a delicacy " about nominating their own colleague Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Appreciating this position, Johnson met 
John Adams the morning of the nomination on the steps of the 
State House and after explaining that Mr. Lee had refused to 
nominate Washington asked the representative from Massachu- 
setts if he would agree to make the nomination. " Mr. Adams," 
according to the story, " made no reply, turned on his heel, and 
left him." 

The story of these conversations with Richard Henry Lee 
and John Adams evidently is not wit|lit foundation, for up- 

** Vide Scharf , History of Western Marjf^k^ Wol. I, 380, StO. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 



265 



wards of a half -century later Mr. Adam? rememibered that the 
delegates from Virginia had, from " delicacy," declined to place 
Washington's name before the House. In a letter written Eeb- 
ruaxy 24, 1821, to Richard Henry Lee, grandson o€ the Richard 
Henry Lee who introduced the resolution in Congress to dednre 
tm United Colonies free and independent, Mr. Adams gave 
this explanation of why Thomas Johnson, of Maryland, made 
the nominating speech : " As such motions were generally con- 
certed beforehand^ I presume Mr. Johnson was designated to 
nominate a, General, because the gentl^ien from Virginia de- 
clined, from deli^cy, like nomination of their own colleague. 
. . . It ought to be eternally remembered that the Eastern 
members were interdicted from taking the lead in any great 
measures, because they lay under an odium and a great weight 
of unpopularity. Because they had been suspected from the 
beginning of having independence in contemplation, they were 
restrained from the appearance of promoting any great meas- 
ures by their own discretion, as well as by the general sense of 
Congress." 

In a letter to Colonel Pickering, dated August 6, 1822, in 
which he told of his journey with Samuel Adams, Gushing, and 
Paine to Philadelphia in 1775, John Adams presented the fol- 
lowing additional facts in this connection : " They were met 
at Frankfort by Dr. Rush, Mr. MifBin, Mr. Bayard, and others, 
who desired a conference, and particularly cautioned not to lisp 
the word ' Independence/ They added, you must not come 
forward with any bold measures ; you must not pretend to take 
the lead j you know Virginia is the most populous State in the 
l^ion ; they are very proud of their ancient dominion, as they 
^11 it ; they think they have the right to lead, and the Southern 
States and Middle States are too much disposed to yield it to 
them. This was plain dealing, Mr. Pickering; and I must 
confess that there appeared so much wisdom and good sense in 
it, that it rkade a deep impression on my mind, and it had an 
equal effectfcon al^^«olleagues. This -conversation, and the 
principles ^^i^^^Hfll motives suggested in it, have given a 




266 



MARYLAND HISTOKICAI. MAGAZINE. 



color, complexion, and ©jharacter to tlie wliole policy of the 
tJnited States' from that day -to this. Without it, Mr. Wash- 
ington would never have cammaad<ed our armies, nor Mr. 
Jefferson ha^ been tfce author of ^ Stedaration of Inde- 
penfeiee, nor Mr. Richard Henry J^ee th€ mover of it, nor Mr. 
Oh^g 4he mover of foreign relations. If I have ever had cau«e 
to repenl'of any part of this policy, that roJ)#itance ever has 
feeen and ever will be unavailing. 1 had forgot to say; 5iar 
Mr. Johnson ever have been tbe nomimttor «f Washington foe 
"General." 

Fromi these statements written nearly fifty years after the 
Declaration of Independence, it appears that Adams (Jorisidered 
it advisable, on the score of policy, that the nomination should 
proceed from a Southern delegate. And thus the duty fell 
upon Johnson. The opportunity for this distinguished service 
came on Thursday, June 15th, 1776, when after srane dis- 
cussw)n the following motion was adopted : 

" Resolved, That a General be appointed to command all the 
Continental forces, raised, or to be raised, for the defence of 
American liberty. 

" That five hundred dollars, per month, be allowed for his 
pay and expenses." 

After the passage of this resolution, Johnson arose; and 
upon being recognized by John Hancock, who had been chosen 
presiding officer when Randolph left for Virginia, delivered a 
brief address in which he placed the name of his friend, George 
Washington, in nomination for General of " all the Conti- 
nental forces." It is true. Col. Washington and Mr. Johnson 
had been personally intimate for a great many years aiid had 
engaged in business enterprises together ; but it was nc^t friend- 
shi;^ alon^%^hich induced' the n(»Anati®4i. * Pt pi^tlematical 
whe^he* Wlghingt^s neliffest f^riiiwis at this^thne 'foresaw the 
fuU extent trf his greatness. Iftdfeed, Washington openly de- 
clared that Ik^ doifbtted liis abilily U 
of OommandeWS^dfeM. 61*611^1^1^^ 




I 



THE LEFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 267 

" Colonel WasHngton himself deprecated J dhnsoii's action. 
He was of opinion that Andrew Lewis, the hero of Point 
Pleasant, was better qualified for the place." But Mr. Johnson 
felt that his friend from Monnt Vernon had given ample proof 
of his generalship in actual warfare, and ignoring Washing- 
ton's diffidence, moved his appointment with genuine zeal and 
enthusiasm, and so successfully was hk work performed that 
when the vote was taken and the ballots counted, it was found 
Aat Washington was elected unanimously! In moving Wadi- 
ii^ton's appointment, at a time when less courageous souls 
hesitated from embarrassment, Thomas Johnson won an im- ' 
mort^ distinction. Pointing to the impca-tance of the role Mr. 
J^maom. had thus enacted, Hamirtcm L. CWson says : 

" To-day it matters not from what State a man may come, 
but then, narrow, local and contracted views predominated. 
Eemember that this was but two months after the affair at 
Lexington, and more than a year before the Declaration of 
Independence. Eeflect on the significance of this act, by which 
a Maryland man, recognizing the commonness of the danger 
and the essential unity of the cause, threw «.side his provincial 
and colonial prejudices, and boldly faced tl^ responsibility of 
naming, in the prince of disunited delegates from! thirteen 
colonies, a Virginian, to command at Cambridge, an army 
which hencefollih was to be known as the Continental Army, 
siAjed; 'to the regulatirais and control of the "Continental Otm- 
gress, freed from purely local restraints, and thereby forced to 
the front the ideas of identity of grievances and unity of action, 
transmuting the loneliness of Massaehus^s in matters once 
local into a common partnership interest in all questions affect- 
ing the general welfare, and placing in the van a man from a 
far distant colony whose rank would be superior to that of 
Ward, Thomas and Putnam even on the heights of Bunker Hill. 
It was a bold conception and national in its character. It is 

^Maryland's Contribution to Federalism, Eep(»'t, Hird Annual 
Meeting (1898), Maryland State Bar Association. 



5 



268 



MARYLAND HISTOBICAIi MAGAZINE. 



true tliat tlie suggestion of this nomination had. come from John 
Adams, supported by Samuel Adams, and Josepli Warren, who 
three days later became the first great martyr in the American 
cause, had written a letter urging the appointment, but Pen- 
dleton, of Virginia, Washington's personal friend, had dis- 
claimed any wish that the Massachusetts commanders should 
be superseded. It detracts noUiing from, the honor due to 
Maryland in thus distinctly adopting a national idea, to sug- 
gest that Massachusetts was under the pressure of an invading 
army, and her forces, as well as those of her isTew England 
allies^ were plainly unequdl to the task of resisting alone for 
any length of time the power of the Orown. The ncanination 
was unanimously approved wiih a liberality which reflects 
credit upon all who participated, but the distinction which 
belongs to the actor, the moving sjririt in the cause, is clearly 
Maryland's." 

When the delegates assem|bled on the following day (Friday, 
June 16th), the Chair formally notified Washington of his 
appointment as Commander-in-Chief and expressed the earnest 
hope that he would serve. Washington then arose and, with 
great dignity and feeling, replied : 

"Mr. President, Though I am truly sensible of the high 
honor done me, in this appointment, yet I feel great distress, 
from a consciousness that my abilities and military experience 
m;ay not be equal to the extensive and important trust. How- 
ever, as the Congress desire it, I will enter upon the momentous 
duty, and exert every power I possess in the service, and for 
the support of the glorious cause. I beg they will accept my 
most cordial thanks for this distinguished testimony of their 
approbation. Blit lest some unlucky event should happen, un- 
favourable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by 
every gentleman in the room, that I, this day, declare with the 
utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command 
I am honored with. As to pay, Sir, I beg leave to assure the 
Congress, that as no pecuniary consideration could have tempted 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 



269 



me to accept tMs arduous employment, at tlie expense of my 
domestic ease and happiness, I do not wisli to make any profit 
from it. I will keep an exact account of my expenses. Those, 
I doubt not, they will discharge ; and that is all I desire." 

General Washington was commissioned the next day (Satur- 
day, June ITth), and after bidding farewell to his friends set 
out for Massachusetts. 

The members of Congress now proceeded to take under 
consideration the selection of Major-Generals. Among those 
who hovered about the State House in quest of high military 
honor was Charles Lee. Born in England in 1731, he saw 
service in Braddock's ill-fated expedition against Tort Du- 
quesne, in the assault on Ticonderoga, in the attack against 
the French fort at ISTiagara, and in the conquest of Canada. 
On his return to England he was promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel and rendered conspicuous service in Portugal, where 
he aided in repelling the Spanish invasion. He expected pro- 
motion on his return home; but, instead, he was put on half 
pay. Greatly ranHed, he offered his service to the King of 
Poland; but ihe hostilities he looked for did not develop and 
he journeyed to Turkey. Some time later he returned to Lon- 
don and again sought promotion ; but, disappointed once more, 
he returned in disgust to Poland, trhere he received the com- 
mission of major-general. He s^ved'in Russia against the 
Turks, and afterwards wandered through France, Italy, Ger- 
many, and Switzerland. Having bitterly denounced the British 
Government, Lee oould not hope for any favors in England 
and in 1Y73 he sailed for Amterioa. Feeling that he might 
have a good chance of being chosen Oommander-in-Chief of 
the American Army, he bought an estate in Virginia and 
espoused the cause of the Colonies with characteristic enthu- 
siasm. It was a di-stinct disappointment to him when he failed 
to secure the highest command, but he now sought with great 
eagerness the post of first Major-General. 

James Johnson declared that while he never heard his uncle 
boast of the honor of having nominated George Washington, 



270 MARYLAND HISTOKICAIi MAGAZIKE. 

there was one peculiar merit lie always claimed — that of pre- 
venting Charles Lee froml being chosen by Congress second in 
command. Says he: "When he (Oeneral Charles Lee) was 
nominated Mr. Johnson, in a speech of some length, portrayed 
his character as a disappointed foreigner, and not to be trusted. 
When he ^t down the whole delegation from "New York arose 
in a body, and said that every word the gentleman f r®m Mary- 
land had said was true." Artemus Ward, of Massachusetts, 
was thereupon chosen to hjead the list of Major-jGenerals. Lee, 
by nature v^n and jealous, was enraged at this selectio* and 
called General Ward " a fat, old church warden " and " a joke 
as a warrior." 

In order to appease Lee, Congress appointed him second 
Major-Greneral and directed John Adams, Patrick Henry, and 
Thomas Lynch to find out wheiier he would accept this com- 
mand. After an interview with Lee, they reported that he 
wanted to serve the American cause, and that he appreciated 
ihe honor conferred upon him, but he desired before entering 
upon the service to confer with a committee consisting of one 
del^ate from each of the Colonies " to whom he desired to 
explain some particulars respecting his private fortune." The 
Congress acceded to his request, and Mr. Johnson was chosen 
to represent Maryland, The entire personnel was as follows: 

Massachusetts, Samuel Adams; ^ew Hampshire, John Sul- 
livan ; Khode Island, Stephen Hopkins ; Connecticut, Eliphalet 
Dyer; !N^ew York, Philip Livingston; Pennsylvania, George 
Ross; ISTew Jersey, William Livingston; Maryland, Thomas 
Johnson, Jr. ; Delaware, Oaesar Rodney ; Virginia, Patrick 
Henry; N^orth Carolina, Richard Caswell; South Carolina, 
Thomas Lynch. 

General Lee gave to the committee an estimate of the estate 
which he risked by entering the service. His property in Eng- 
land, he claimed, yielded him an income of some six or seven 
thousand dollars per annum. He told the delegates that if 
Congress would agree to indemnify him for any loss of property 
he might sustain by reason of his service, he would accept the 



( 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHEfSON. 271 

cominand. Tlie committee reported to tlie House tlie result of 
their interview, and Congress decided to protect Lee from any 
loss lie might sustain. General Lee then hurried to Cambridge. 
On the recommendation of General Washington, Horace Gates 
was appointed Adjutant-General with the rank of Brigadier. 
Philip Schuyler was chosen third Major-Geijeral, and Israel 
Putnam fourth. It, turned out that General Ward resigned his 
command after the British evacuated Boston, and General Lee 
became senior MajOT-jGeneral, second only in command to Gen- 
eral Washington. After the repulse of the attack on Charleston, 
Lee returned N^orth in high popular favor, and after being 
captured laid before the British a sehgio^s to ^ush tbe Bev^lu- 
tioii withaa »ixty days. Lee^s treason was not discovered among 
the ^cimientg of the British War Office until about aev«at3^ 
years- after his death. After betraying hi* couatry, he had the 
braaen effrontery to returm to ii^ Arai^ieail -service. At the 
bufetld of Mo^no«th^ h^ deliberately flwus^d the idau^ter o€ 
his own soldiers, and was tried by eaart-msa"ti«l foi disobedience 

oidere., misbehavior before ike emmj in nutkix^ an unnec- 
essary retreat, and disrespect to the Coinini»der-in-Cliie£. 
Found guilty on aH three «lM«ge«, he wm sm^nmd to fee sim- 
pended from the army for me year. After trying to suppkM 
Washington in the higher omimiBJid and after making many 
bitter attacks upon Congress, he was finally expelled from the 
army. He died in disgrace in a tavern in Philadelphia. Inci:- 
dentally. Congress paid General Lee $30,000, when his prop- 
erty had been confiscated in England. If it is true that Dele- 
gate J ohnson predicted on the floor of Congress, as his nephew 
alleges, that Charles Lee was " not to be trusted," the Mary- 
land statesman saw into the future with prophetic vision. For 
this impudent British officer became the arch traitor of the 
Kevolution, more despicable even than Benedict Arnold. 

On the 23d of June, 1775, Congress decided to adopt a 
Declaration to be published by General Washington at his 
headquarters in ]^ew England. The work of drafting this 
document was referred to a committee, upon which Tom John- 



272 



MASTLJkND HISTOBICAL JCA&AZINE. 



son and Ben Pranklin once more served together. Their asso- 
ciates were John Jay, William Livingston, and John Rutledge. 
The committee worked with great haste, for it reported the 
very next day. This draft met with objection, and finally it 
was referred back to the committee, to which had been added 
John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, and Thomas Jefferson, of 
Virginia. Then came the first association of Johnson and 
Jefferson on one of the Congressional committees. One of the 
chief objections to the first draft was that it was too harsh. 
Mr. Jefferson re-tonched it, and after being reported in ii?s 
" softened " condition was adopted by the House. 

With provisions made for the military establishment, and 
the Oonanander-in-Ohief and the Major-'Generals selected, Con- 
gress was now ready to hear a report from the committee dhosen 
"to draught a Petition to the King." For a month Dr. 
Franklin, Jay, Johnson, Dickinson, and Hutledge had been 
devoting careful^ thought to this document, and when the 
" dutiful and humble " Petition was presented It was received 
with enthusiastic approval. On tihe "8th of July it was signed 
by the representatives of the various Colonies. The Maryland 
delegate who had signed the Potion of 1774, t(^ether with 
Mr. Stone, eubscribed their names. In Ministry and Parlia- 
ment, the position of Maryland was no longer in doubt. 

Thomas Johnson's work at Philadelphia, at first chiefly lit- 
erary and legal, was now about to become more practical. His 
ability was soon recognized in the realm of finance. On the 
19th of July, he was chosen, with Cushing of Massachusetts 
and Deane of Connecticut, " to estimate the expenses incurred 
by the votes and resolves of this Congress." And when, shortly 
before adjournmlent, it was deemed advisable to select a recess 
committee of one member from each of the " Original Thir- 
teen," to make an exhaustive search for lead ore and to find 
out the best way to have it smelted and refined, Mr. Johnson 
was chosen to head the campaign in Maryland. This was the 
complete committee : John Adams (Massachusetts) ; Stephen 
Hopkins (Rhode Island) ;. John Langdon (New Hampshire) ; 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSOIT. 273 

Silas Deane (Connecticut) ; George Clinton (jSTew York) ; 
Stephen Crane (New Jersey); Benjamin Franklin (Pennsyl- 
vania) ; Caesar Rodney (Delaware) ; Thomas J ohnson (Mary- 
land) ; Patridk Henry (Virginia) ; Joseph Hewee (l^^orth 
Carolina) ; Christopher Gadsden (South Carolina) ; and Lyman 
Hall (Georgia). Mr. Johnson, in Maryland, and his associates 
in their respective Oolonies, were also directed to investigate 
the most economical method of making salt. After the selection 
of the recess committee, Gm]^^ adjmirned on tiie 1st of 
August, 1775. 

In referring to the work of the Maryland delegates in Cm- 
gresB, Mr. Scharf makes the 'following alluiion to John«©n's 
wmmittee assignments : ^® 

" From the beginning the Maryland representatives took a 
leading and mlost active part in the proceedings of the body, 
particularly Mr. Thomas Johnson, one of the foremost states- 
men of the day, whose name appears on nearly all the com- 
mittees, and Samuel Chase, the ' Dtemosthenes of Maryland,' 
who first declared in Congress that he ' owed no allegiance to 
Great Britain.' Altogether the delegation constituted a nohle 
representation of the ability, omlture, political intelligence and 
wisdom of Maryland at this exciting period." 

After reviewing the remarkable list of activities in which 
Johnson engaged in the development of the Bepublic, one can 
not but wonder why this statesman from Maryland has received 
such a scanty mention in American history. 

(To he contimied) 



** Scharfi History of Maryland, Vol. n, 179. 



274 



MAEYLAI^^D HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



EXTRACTS FBOM THE CAEROLIi PAPERS 

(C^t!»ied from Y(A. XT, p. Ml.) 



Jimel3:l773 [228] 

Cliarley 

I am at ease from what you say of Antilons last Piece & 
Answer to it. The 21 Barrillg of Pork are at the Landing. I 
have not Counted the Cash you sent hy Molly. I will give M"^ 
Deard's Money to Pay M^^ Browns Acct. The sledges Hammer 
& Ploughs you desier shall be ready as soon as possible. Let 
me see you as soon as you Can. We are well. God grant you 
perfect Health & a long Continuance of it. I am D'^ Charley 

Yr Mo: Aff* Father Chii: Carroll 

P. S. 

I understand there is to be in Our next Gazette a disavowell 
of the Proceedings at the Election in B: Towne, the Parties to 
it may think themselves Men of Conaequence. Chace &c nmy 
stir up C : Ridgeley & l^e other Representatives to resent it & 
to justify their Proceedii^s. Do'' jo : Stevenson I Hear is at 
the Head of the Disavowers & «et it on foot. 

I leave my letter to Delaney undirected as He may be for 
ought I know the Hon**^® of vs^ Title I am not willing to deprive 
Him Sterl 
I inclose you Wheelers Bond & Ace* £451 :15 :2% 

My Edward Wheeler in Aoc* Curr* with Charles Carroll Esq'^ 

1772 Sterl 
June 16. To Balance (Eo. 18) 424..10..6% 

acres 

1773 To 2 y^s Q^it E^nts 283 1.. 2..8 
June 16. To 1 y^^ Interest on 425..13.1l/^ 25..10..9l/^ 

To 1 years Quit Rents 11.. 4 

451..15..2% 

17'?3 Sterl 
June By Bond charged Lib C. €. Fo. 451..15..23^ 



EXTEACTS FROM THE CAEKOLL PaPEES. 



275 



June 18^^ 1773 [229] 

Charley 

I have y^^ of the 11*^ & 14*^ ins*. I am easy about Answer 
to Antilon as you are satisfyed with it. If you do not publish 
it during the sessiolis, I shall expect you next week. I have 
got Home the Pork & the £81 you sent me. I gave Deards 
the widow Browns Acc*^ & money to Pay Her. I order'd the 
sledge Hammer & 3 Weeding Ploughs on receit of y^ letter, I 
will enquier whether they are done. If wee have or I Can get_ 
it, I will send ;;^ou the Turnip seed you wrote for. Pray inf orme 
mfe whether it is lik-ely th* the House will proceed to doe tmsi- 
ne^, l3iat is whether the Upper House will yield, for I iuppose 
tJie Lower to be inflexible. I hear yesterdays Oazette Contains 
a I^otest of some in B. Towne ag* burning the P^^imation 
^ &c & th* D : D : & His Br(Jt2ier Dmnis were there tike 7* 
ins*. If the Protest be net CJauti-otisly & uaodesti^ worded, it 
is more than probable it will give offence to the County & its 
Eiepresentatives & be attended with Consequences not agreable 
to the Protesters. Pray give me a little of y' Time & let me 
Have all the news you can, but I hope you will bring it, if yon 
do not Publish, M'' Deards Caii take Care of y^ Open House. 
This is bad weather for the Wheat only, I fear the Rust. Pray 
prut up the inclosed advertisement at the door of our County 
Court, th* is where the Court is Held, desier Deards to do 
it & to take a M<* : of the day. God bless you & grant you Health. 
I am Dr Charley Mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

June 24 1773 [230] 
DrCharky ^ 

I am obliged to you for y' Aoc* of the Proceedings of the 
Assembly, they will I doubt not adof t a more Eational Plan 
then th* upon they Have set out. If insted of Voting the 
40 pT Pol Law invalid, they had Resolved & voted all to be 
Enemies to their Country who should Pay OflBcers Fe^ under 
the Proclamati<m & the last -table they would in my opinion 



276 



MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



have done well, the Officers discouraged by such a Vote & the 
fear of getting no fees would in all prohability Consent to a 
reasonable fee Bill. I am not of a disponding temper, I hope 
the Meeting will be attended with a better Issue lhan you seem 
to Expect, & I flatter myself you will Confirm my Hopes by 
y^ next, a week may make a great Change, be Parti-cular, I think 
the Address to C : Eidgeley &;c may be expc^ed to great Con- 
tempt, it is Reported a list of 500 will appear this week, in Our 
Gazette or a Paper .of Goddards ag* the 106 in our last Gazette. 
If you have very good Authority for what you write to Molly 
the Gov'^ sayed about the 1^* Citizen, you will doe well not to 
Darken His doors untiU His Behaviour Contradicts His words, 
w^ from His fickel foolish Conduct it is more than Probable 
will soon Happen. Y'^ Ploughs & sledge Hammer are ready, 
if I have an opportunity I will forward them to you. We want 
Rain much, perhaps we may have a gust this afternoon, it now 
looks like it. We began yesterday to Cut some Rye, I think our 
Wheat Harvest will Come on sometime next week, I think the 
Wheat will be good, but some of it I am told is touched with 
the Rust, All our Corn & tob'^ fields are very Clean & look well 
a Soaking rain would doe great good especially to the Oates w^ 
look well & are now filling. 

June 25*^. !Nio rain yet, but it is so Close warme & Cloudy 
th* I expect a gust this afternoon. You do not tell me th* you 
intend y'^ Answer to Antilon to be in our next Gazette but as 
you say you shall not he with us before next Thursday or Fri- 
day, I suppose it Cap^ Ellis is a good natured & agreeable 
Gent^ & I have been pleased with His Company, He leaves 
me toMorrow, so does Cousin D : Carroll who Came Here last 
Monday, on th* Dfeiy M'^^ Damall set out on a Visit to M^^^ 
Baker & Co" Carroll, we expect Her to-Morrow. Molly our 
little onfe & I are well. God Bless you & grant you perfect 
Health & a long Continuance of it. I fim D'^ Charley 

Yr Mo :Aff* Father 



Cha: Carroll 



EXTRACTS PKOM THE CARROLL, PAPERS. 



211 



P. S. Pray seal the inclosed to W^t. 

6 a Clock P. M. We have had a fine rain, it lasted nigh three 
quarters of an hour. 

July 16*^^ 1773 [231] 

Charley 

I yesterday very effectually proved the Bounds I wanted to 
Estahlish. In the Afternoon we had a fine rain, it lasted about 
an hour, it was of great Service to the Corn tob° & Pasture, We 
may doe without more Eain for 6 or 8 days, keep Alick to wait 
on Molly up. The Child is perfectly well My love to you k 
Molly,. God grant you both perfect Health k a long 0<m- 
tinufftBce <si it. I am D'^ Charley 

Y'Mo: Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

July 20*1^ 1773 [232] 

Charley 

I doe not doubt but you will Carefully Examin Perkins & 
Companys Acc* Cur* When I goe to Annapolis I will specify 
the Articles objected to, w-^ are to be Creditted. Doe they or 
Hobson mention any thing of my Wiggs returned to P : B & B'^. 
What assurance Can W^t Give you th* His Bill will meet with 
a bettejf fate than y'^ owne, this you must be well Satisfyed 
about & let M'^ West know my direction to you is to get th* 
Satisfaction. If Major Hutcheson be stil in Towne Pray pre- 
sent my Compliments to Him thank Him for His kind Remem- 
brance of me & desier Him to present my Hum : Respects to 
Generall Haldiman & to Assure Him it would give me Pleasure 
to see Him at my Country Retreat. I should be sorry if 
Antilon by an answer to y^ last should oblige you to Reply. 
Should Boucher Attack the Planter you need not, notwith- 
standing His Suspicions, take up the Cudgells to Vindicate 
Him, you would endeed be fully Employed were you to Vindi- 
cate every Anonim'ous production w^ may be sayed to be yours. 
We have a Report Here that Troops are Expected at Annapolis 



278 



MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



& Baltimore & that tlie Gov'" wrote for them should this be true, 
He may Perhaps meet witii greater Mortificati(His than the 
Burning of His proclamation. The Swelling in my leggs is 
much abated, it is scarce perceptible in a morning, Setting Icmg 
is Prejudicimll to me Exercise is absolutely necessary Especially 
Walking. But I Cannot walk as much as I would doe in this 
Hot Weather, I generally walk frcrai 6 P. M. to 8 a Clock. 
Every thing Here is in a thrii^ii^ Way. Our grain in Grenerall 
is secured, some Oat^ excepted. M^t of ovi meadows are 
mowed & the Greatest part of the Hay Stacked. We shall begifi 
to m'ow the Pool meadow on friday w^ will yield a rich Crop. 

Deards Writes me He will Endeavour to be Contented 
with the advance of His Wages, w^ is saying very Plainly that 
He is not so at present Hbw happy is His scituation to what 
it was when He Came to us, but iNTemo sua Sorte beatus, I wish 
Him well & in a Station more agreable to Him, sentiments 
are I am Confident agreable to myne & that you would be glad 
He Could find such a Station. I have a letter from M'" Williams 
with His Acc* of Disbursements on the Vignerons Amounting 
to £33 :11 :9 I am to Pay Him beside £5 or £6 on Ashtons 
Acc*. Pray send me a good Bill for £40 if any such Comes to 
y'^ Hands or advise me where I can draw for th* sum Pray 
peruse Seal & forward the inclosed. Has Graves wrote to you 
or sent you any Books ? Our little Darling has a Cold, not 
troublesome to Hfer or any ways dangerous, otherway^s perfectly 
well & in good spirits. God Bless you & grant you Health I 
am D'^ Charley 

Mo: Afft Father 
Cha: Carroll 

July 30tt 1773 [233] 

D^ Charley 

I have y^^ from the 22* to the 26*^ instant inclusive, the 
Contents have not been Communicated to any one but Molly. 
You are right to stick to Antillon, avoid Writing on any other 
Subject, I am Certain you will find it the most prudent Course 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CAJBRQLL PJkPEES. 279 

a due Attention to owne affairs will not admit you to spend 
time in Political squabbles or Party writings. I am pleased 
with, tbe Concern you express for my Health & y'' Tenderaess 
duty & afection. I am Convinced they are most 'Sincere. I 
have never 'had the least Kieason to doubt th™. The swelling 
in my leggs has been quite gone for 5 or 6 days past, from my 
Preient Health strength & Habit I flatter myself I sh^l have 
the Pleasure of being with you a few years longer, but build 
not on it. Accustom y^self to thinJ: frequently as I f (Mmerly 
Wrote you on my dissolution, th* when it Happens it may be 
less Ai&icting. You will doe well by Buok expr^sions of y^ 
K^ard for Graves, by shewing Him the Esteem you have for 
Him to force Him in a manner to keep up a Correspondence 
with you. Make no other Repairs to the House M'^* Potts lived 
in than are absolutely necessary to keep it standing. But more 
of this when we meet. Ashton is Antoy Carroll's Attorney. I 
have not yet answered the Barristers letter . . . You are right 
to despise Lexiphares & all such scrubs. The letter from Oha* 
County giving an Acc* of the Joy there, the Applause given to 
Antilon, the Sermon &c, Mr. Eozier tells me is all a lye. 
Upon praising Antilon at Melwood my "Niece told Her Hus- 
band His Prejudices were very strong, th* had the Citizen 
wrote Antilons Papers & Antilon the Citizens their Praises 
would still be in favour of Antilon & then left the Company. 
I sayed nothing to Deards, I thought my disapprobation of His 
letters would be best expressed by my silence. I send you His 
letters th* you may judge. I think Him too Assuming & wish as 
you doe He Could get a more profitable Place. I hope Antilon 
will wave the dispute. I have had the inclosed applications 
for our tobo. my demand was 16/8 ster. I answered Buchan- 
ans, He has not been w*^ me. Stephenson Called & I have 
some Hopes He will Call again. Eozier His wife & son goe 
to Morrow, Cap^ Scot & Ja: Brooke Came last night, M^^ 
Bidout & the Major are to Betum next Tuesday to Annapolis. 
God Bless you & grant you Health. Y'^ last letter was full & 
a pretty long one, for which I thank you. 



280 



MAEYLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 



Aug* 26*^ 1773 [235] 

Oharley/ 

Molly Continues to mend, But she & Wee have been very 
uneasy on the Childs Acct, she & the Child for some days had 
a Cold & Ugly Cough. Last Monday about noon she was seized 
with a Violent feaver w^ Continued on Her until yesterday 
noon with very little Remission, she is now Clear of it & in 
spirits w^ makes us all so. We have great Crops of tob'' & the 
tob° of an Extraordinary Size : We began to House it yesterday. 
Riggs Says He shall want House roome. Frost has done sow- 
ing His Wheat & Rye, Riggs has about 40 Bush^ of Wheat to 
sow w^ must be postponed untill iiie Hurry of Housing is some- 
thing over. 'Clarke has sowed but la small proportion of His 
Wheat on Ace* of the foulness of His Corn ground & it must 
be put of until Rfiggs Can find time to Assist Him witti His 
Ploughs. 

The wind is strong at 1^ : E. & it spits Rain, I wish it may 
not turn out a E: gust, eliould th* Happen it will shatter 
our tobo Spot & Rot it, blow downe ofur apples brake the trees 
& lay our Com & be of vast prejudice. Pray write to West 
about omr Cottons & other goods not sent by Hol®on, to know 
whether we Can depend upon having them & in what time, & 
let him know th* if He Cannot give a Satisfactory answer, 
to supply US immediately with i3i© Quantity we wrote for. 
Aug* 27^^ One a Clock P. M. 

John Sears this minute delivered me y^^ of yesterday w^ I 
ooanmunicated to Molly who will answer what relates to Her. 
Our little Girl is very well but pulled downe & thin. We had 
a Heavy Rain & wind untill 12 last night ; It has been no other- 
ways, prejudiciall as I yet Hear but Hindring our Housing, 
makeing the tob^ Spot &; Preventing Ploughing I am Glad to 
Hear you have so good Crops at y'^ Plantation nigh Towne & 
the Island. Johny Sears is an Active Industrious young man. 
As soon as my tob^ is Housed I will send you my Carpenters, 
they are all at present finishing two new tob° Houses, w^ must 
be done unless I resolved to loose the tob^ they will Contain. 



EXTEACTS FROM THE CABEOLL PAPEES. 281 

Sucli is tke Growth of tdb^ th* with all the shifts Riggs Can 
make I am fearfull we ahall not be ahle to find House roome 
for it. If the Bame is so had, why did not Jo^ Sears stack 
His Eye & Gates. Jm. Johnson I suppose will be with me 
before the 20*^ of Sep^. I shall deliver you the greatest part 
of I3ie Cash I shall Eeceive from Him. Johny Carry^ the 
Ploughs & Hammers. As nothing r^ular Gan be expected 
from y^ additions & improvements, I hope you will obtain at 
least Conveniences. Since you Cannot Come for Molly, I 
shall be glad to see Beards on Friday as Molly intend© downe 
on Monday Sennight. Gur Gov'^ is what you say a very silly 
idle di-ssipated man. Have you been in Company with Him 
since you left us ? if so, how did He Bdiave ? Molly y^ wife, 
is I think quite well. May you be so & long Oontinue so. God 
ble»s you. 

Sep' 3: 1773 [236] 

Charley/ 

I have y^^ of the 30*^ past by M'^ Beards I am satisfyed with 
y'^ Choice of Wallace & Comp^ for Correspondents. Three 
Carpenters shall be sent as soon as they Can be possibly spared, 
w^ I hope will be in less than a fortnight, they may goe to the 
Island get the scantlings for the Com House Sibthorp shall 
Carry with Him the dimensions of my new Com House. C : 
IsTeales Bebt is good, but there is no Conveying a letter to Him 
from Hence but by a special Messenger. Montgomery was 
easy & Chearfull. I am glad to Hear our goods are Come 
from Hobson. Send me His letters. What prospect have 
you of Making such a Remittance as will answer the Goods to 
be sent for & Bills to be drawne ? I must have y^ Bills payable 
to M^ John Williams for $45 or Guineas to that Amount as 
soon as Possible. M^ Eidout tells me Cap^ Howard Has 
brought in many tradesmen I want a Plasterer Exceedingly 
Having work of that sort to doe to the Amount of upwards of 
£100' so th* He will be a very profitable serv* therefore spare 
no pains to get One. I shall be downe a few days before the 
Eaces. Molly has not been well since you left us. 



282 



MARYLAND HISTOKICAI, MAGAZINE. 



Sep' 17*^ 1773 [237] 

Charley/ 

Three Carpentetrs set of to morrow to doe wliat Work you 
want to be done at the Quarter, as soon as they have done at 
the Quarter send them to Island to get the Erarn© of the 
Corae House agreeable io ike inclosed Bill of Scantling. When 
the Frame is got Sibthorp & two of the Hands under Him 
skaH be sent to frame & aet it up. Oredit Edr^* Dorsey by 
^e inclosed Bill, Ifce O^i^ I !ksep. I expect Joe: Johnson 
from •CarroUlon 1k> Morrow. We House all the tob'' by 
the last of next week or sooner. We are getting in our Blades 
ifc top©» I think we shall make upwards <^ 1*00 hgds of tofe*. 
Our Wheat ismc* mil nowed. I 'OoBliinie Hearty & weU, M'^ 
D»mall Had tlie tootha(^e yesterday A last ni^t badly, she is 
easier to day. We propose to «ee you on Wensday or Thurs- 
day, if the Morning permits us to se* out early. We will dine 
wit3i you if not we will Dine with Tootle, or at Tootles. Do 
not wait Dinner for us. Molly gave me the greatest Pleasure 
k Satitfiietion by informing wbuii^t timt sh'C was ins well 
as she ever wm m lile. 



Octo' 15: 1773 [238] 

Dr Charley/ 

Eob* Davis (by whome I wrote to you) Set of from Hence 
last Tuesday morning to receive y^ instructions. I shall be 
glad to know whether what He has done is to y'* Satisfaction. 
M.^ Monerieff successor to My French informs me Cooper Oram 
lives about 3 miles below E: R: Landing & has promised to de- 
sier Him to Come to me. Pray let me know what questions 
you would have me Ask Him. Clark has at last sowed His 
Wheat, He says 100 Bushs & 16 of Barley, the Ground in 
Generall was in bad order otherways from the mild weather 
we have Hitherto had it might produce well. Frost at the 
Plantations under His Care has sowed 60 Bush^ of Wheat & 
as much Eye, it was aU sowed by the 23^ of Aug*. Biggs's 



EXTKACTS PROM THE CABBOLL PAPEBS. 283 

Wheat & Ry© was in early. He lias not yet given me an Aoc* 
of what is sowed at tke Plantations under His Care. 

My love & Service to M^^ Darnall, I hope she is well. I 
send yon a mess of Green Peas, I have not gathered any for 
myself, & unless the frost keeps away a week longer, I think I 
shall not. I Hear Careand is arrived, if any news, by Him 
or from any other Quairter Pray Conamunicate it. How does 
the Assembly goe on? is there any Prospect of the Countrys 
Reaping any Benefit from this meeting ? My Love & Blessing 
to you Molly & my little Darling, God Grant you all Health 
& Happiness. 



OgU>^ 2ist 1773 [230] 

Charley 

I have y'^^ by M'^^ Darnall who Came Home in pretty good 
spirits. I will ask Oram the Questions you desire when I see 
Him. Eob* Davis was with me this afternoon with a very 
imperfect scratch for Plat, Worthingtons land was not layed 
downe on it. He had not time to Perfect it, but will doe it as 
well as He Can in a short time, it is Evident Darrell had a 
Survey made ibefore that specified in the Certificate you gave 
Davi-s by that Certificate, & By Mascalls Adventure Calling 
for a tree of Darrell tho Mascall is Prior in Date to the Cer- 
tificate you Have of Darrall. It is Essentiall to find the Cer- 
tificate of Darrills first survey, in order to that, first Consult 
the Rent Roles of Baltimore & Ann Arundel Counties. I ap- 
prehend the Land Originally lay in Baltimore County, you 
will see w'hen it is sayed to be taken up by the Rent Role. Then 
Search the Original Record Books (the Copies of them Com- 
monly had Recourse to are not to be depended on) Do not 
trust to the Clerks to make this Search, they are to lazy & Indo- 
lent & Careless. Begin y'^ Search Anno 1660 & from th* Date 
or Earlier turn over the Books Page by Page this is necessary 
as the Alphabets to the old & new Books are very imperfect, 
this is absolutely necessary if you want to be satisfyed. You 
must not b^udge the time, supposing it may take you 3 days. 
6 



284 



MABYLAM© MmTOWLCAL MA&M,mM. 



But as few Lands were taken up m Early, it is Probable it 
may take you above a day. I know you do not like such. Work 
or to Turn over old Papers even in y^ owne House, but Property 
must be sacrificed or the necea^ry trouble & means taken in 
defence of it. 

On Monday next tbe Commissioners meet to Close my Com- 
mission & fix the Stones, I shall not send downe untill that 
Business is over. I suppose I shall see you about the first 
week in IS^oy^. So M^^ Darnall tells me, & that you are well, 
may you very long Continue so. My Love & Blessing to you all. 
I desier Mollyq to goe to Bed Early to be for sometime Cautions 
of eating anything w^ she thinks or is advised may Hurt Her. 
I dread Her Bileous disposition. 



Octo' 29**1 1773 [240] 

Charley/ 

The Commissioners last Monday fixed the Stones to Perpetu- 
ate the Bounds of Chance, the Com^^ will be Returned to our 
County Court. I have not seen Cooper Oram yet when I doe 
I will ask Him the Questions you desier. Rob* Davis has not 
brought me the Plat of the Lands at the Bodkin. Jas. Johnson 
has been with me but brought no money. The Tenants not 
Having sold their Grain. Put the inclosed Crop note with the 
Rest & desier M^ Deards to Call on West for £2 : 10 : 0 due as 
p'^ the inclosed Acc* do not mislay the Acc*. We have Measured 
at all the Plantations (I have not had the Acc* from the Folly 
of the Potatoes made there) 7145 Bushels of Potatoes, sowed 
230 Bushs of Wheat 144y2 of R!ye filled 30 tobo Houses, 15 
of w^ were Rehung & all the Rest Hung very thick & Close, so 
th* if the tobo j^q^ Damaged by the Constant Close Warm 
& Moist weather we have had this Fall, I think we shall make 
odds of 100 hgds of tob<>. Our Crop made 1772 amounted to 
76 hgds to w^ 5 hgds of Rent tob<» is to be added. Out of the 
whole 3 hgds of Trash have been Shiped by Hanrick. The 
Wheat at the Folly looks very well, the Mildness of the Fall 



EXTEACTS FEOM THE CAERO!.!. PAPEES. 



285 



has broTiglit it on Surprkinglj, it may trtrn out l)etter than our 
fii^t sowed Wheat. Our People are in Generall Healthj & 
every thing goes on well. I jmyed Clem* Brooke the Ball® of 
• y^ Private Acc* at the Works £13 : 14 : 11. I s^id you as . 
Turuibull tells me a larger Dish of Gre^a Peas than the last : 
I gathered a good Dish on the 24*^ & a very large Dish on the 
25*^ 12 Dined with me, and all eat of them, most were Helped 
to thmi twice, yet a good Plate full went from the Table. 

I expect interesting news from you about the Proceedings 
of the Houses of Assembly, Whether they will or will not agree 
I think may now be determined. The Lower House is Cer- 
tainly the most Competent Judge of what the People ought to 
Pay the officers, should the Upper House pretend to Dictate 
& be Obstinate I doubt not the strongest Resolves will be made 
by the Lower. One in my Opinion should be, th* all who Pay 
fees not Established by Law are Enemies to their Country. 
The sale of offices, the Saddles payed by all Our Great Officers 
ought not to be forgot. The County Clerkships in Virginia are 
filled by young Gent" who Serve an Apprenticeship in the 
Secretaries Office, so th* there are allways many Compleat 
Clerks in th* Office & thence the Counties are supplyed with 
able & well Qualified Clerks ; How different is the State of our 
Provinciall Office were it looked into. How unqualified are most 
of our County Clerks, are not most of th™ above their Business 
a strong proof of Certainly that their fees are not too low. I 
long to see you, when may I expect you ? M^^ Darnall sends 
Our Darling a Pocket Booke & Purse, I put 3 = 8*^^ (yf ^ 
Dollar in it & send Her a Pear tell Her this, & Give Her a 
Kiss & tell Her I sent it. Mj love & Blessing to you all, I 
hope to Hear you are all perfectly well. . . . 



N'ov' 12^^ 1773 [241] 

Dr Charley/ 

Last night M'^ Ashton gave me N'otice He intended shortly 
to leave me, if He expected I would press Him to stay. He was 
much disappointed, I am glad to get rid of a silly Peevish dis- 



286 



MAilTLAMD HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 



agreeable man. Read my letter to Lewis, seal & forward it hj 
the 1®* Private post, seiid for Lansdale & give Him -a shilling 
to Engage His Care of it. T-ake iw> Kotiee to Ashijon of what 
I write to yon k Lewis. I have not Heard from Kob* Davis, 
I intend there to morrcyw to see How He does, I suppose you 
will direct the dieriff to Summons Davis Shipley & Oram to 
Attend y'^ Kesurvey, as I think Davis will not be well enough 
to Attend there must be an adjournment untill the Spring. I 
dined with Ja^ Howard yejaierday. He did nothing with Har- 
rison, nor did He Hear of any Paper of instructions offered in 
B: Town. The People last Sunday at E. R. Church were 
Divided, some were ag* the instruction prohibiting their Dele- 
gates from Proceeding to Business unless the inspection Law 
was Previously obtained; no Paper was subscribed there that 
Day, other Meetings are appointed & I hope with better success. 

P; M: Davis Came to me after Dinner & Delivered 
the Papers therewith, w^ I think will Evince the Justness of 
our Pretensions. Jo *. Gray must be summoned, so must Rob* 
Davis but He is too weak to attend, & therefore there must be 
as I sayed an adjournment. I have payed Rob* Davis's Acc*. 
He Credits the 30 s you payed Him. 

I send you y^ Paper, it was brought to me by Ja^ Howard. 
I send the Boy as 11^ Ashton will not return before next Thurs- 
day, the Boy may Return on Monday with this & the last weeks 
Papers by whome I expect any news you may Have to Com- 
municate. How doe the instructions goe on in other Counties 
to their Representatives ? I hope y'^ Leg is quite well or much 
better & th* you are all very well. . . . 



l^ovf 18^^ 1TT3 [242] 

Dr Charley/ 

Y^^ of the 12*^ & 14**^ instant are before me. If to avoid 
a present inconvmience & the trouble of looking out for a new 
Clerk you have retained M'^ Deards I blame you, if you have 
kept Him out of a Particular Friendship, I do not Censure you. 
liielcmed you have a Oopy <^ what I hat® wJole to Him. 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 



287 



I waited Hopeing Hobson migiit still send our goods, I am 
in Hopes to get l3ie Cotton I want at B ; L: at 20 p'^ C* advance. 

I received the 10* Warr* w^ I Cannot locate before Ed : Dor- 
sejs return from Beditone. SHpley Continues in the same 
story, I r^d the inclosed paper to Him & He "v^ill swear to the 
Contents of it. I send you His letter, hy th* I>avis has not 
lay^d downe the Catauamau Pcmds, either from Want of 
Proper & writtm iBStructions from you, or from Him miscon- 
ceptions of th^ no summons's are Come to Shipley or Davis, 
the latter on acc* of His 'Health Cannot now attmd. You 
want the Business over from an aversion to trouble, an tdjo^m- 
meut wiU hut let you into the views of y^ adversary, give you 
time to Oonsider them, & to take the Proper steps to defeat th™, 
Business of Consequence is not to be Precipitated. Pray for- 
ward my letter to M'^ Lewis, I must Have a Chaplain Here, 
I blame my self for not having Procured one much Sooner. I 
will write to Croxall as you desier. Why did you not tell me 
you wrote the Vioter, be not reserved to me: The Ellectors 
thoughts Coincide with the Voters but they are much more 
Clearly Concisely & better expressed by the Voter. Are there 
any Private letters giving an Ace* of Coll Sharpes & M^^ Ogles 
arrivall. Our Assembly is not I suppose got yet into any 
track of Business I shall be glad to Hear what the Gov^ has 
sayed to them, that they meet in the same Spirit with w^ they 
adjourned & th* the instructions have been Generall not to pro- 
ceed to any Business unless they ohtain a Separate inspection 
Law. If you have any Private Politicall intelligence Pray 
Communicate it. How does the Poor Gov^ look & behave. 

I Hear the Chimny in the Green room smokes much, M^' 
Ashton Cured His hy putting a board lOver One of the Pun- 
nells. . . . 



ITov^ 19*h P. M. 

I have an Acc* with Do^ Howard you need not Continue y'^^ 
the letter to Coale was sent when you was here, by T)o^ Howard 
being the .1^* op$)ortunity I had after I had it I will send to 



288 



MAETLAITD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



M'^Kensie to morrioiw. I shall jm)lve tlie Jams's wlien I see 
til™ in Annapolis. Davis OLarges few His Job at tlie Bodkin 
£2 : 12 : 6, A man to have His business well done must do it 
Himself. B : County did at my E'atkers Death & since extend 
on this side of Patapsoo, "but whether it included the Bodkin 
Lands I knew not. Shipley did not or has not yet seeai Jo: 
Hammond who He &inks has the Origin^U Certificate of Dar- 
rill. You do not say you have sem Burgees the Surveyor, who 
you was told Could point out the Prooeedings betwem Darrill 
& Homewood, why did you not make it y'" Business to soe him, 
these are additional Ei^sons for you to defer the Laying downe 
y' Pretensions. I am glad to. Hear you think the inspection 
law will Paas. . . . 



Ifovemr 21«* 1773 [243] 

D* Charley/ 

Inclosed you have Irelands Bills for y^ Bills to Him, I keep 
the Acct here & a Plat from Davis which I hop© will be more 
to y'^ Satisfaction than His last, He is still poorly not able to 
Attend the Resurvey He has not yet been summoned. Mac- 
kensi© went out yesterday to Collect money for us, He has 
Promised to be with me next Wend-sday. iRiggs has made at 
the Plantation under His Care 1073% Barrils of Com, Frost 
only 759. Upon the whole 75 Barrils less than last year. 
Frost has 142 Barrills of Old Com by Him. I expect John- 
son, Cook & Chace this Evening from Frederick. . . . 



'NoY^ 26*1^ 1773 [244] 

Dr Charley/ 

The Hammonds Cannot forgive my taking 500a by the Re- 
survey of Chance w^ their Father intended to take : As to what 
any of th"^ say it is not to be minded they all are noted for not 
observing their word. Had I gone to Rezin Hammonds I 
must Have enterd into a long disagreeable Controversy with a 
Boisy obstinate fool not to be Convinced tho quite in the wrong. 



EXTKACTS FEOM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 289 

You might have seen Burgess at our County Court & Got from 
Him directions -wliere to look for the Proceedings between Dar- 
rell & Homewood. I hope you have now got what informa- 
tion He Can Give as He is the Surveyor & is to lay downe 
yrs ^ Worthingtons Pretensions, i am glad you have Had 
such favourahl© Weather on the Survey. You now Can forme 
a pretty good Opinion of Worthingtons pretensions & I wish 
to know it. Higgs sent hut 10 p^ of shoes. I think my letter 
to you Clearly sayed or implyed th* what I sent you Eelating 
to Deards was a Copy of what I wrote to Him, the Originall 
I gave Him when He Came Hera I am makeing a farme 
Yard before my Cow House, iihe ground from all the sides will 
incline to the Center where a large dung pit will be sunk. My 
Vines in the Vineyard are tyed up & secured ag* the frost by 
straw. The Bkth will before I goe downe be made a Comfort- 
able Habitation for the Vignerons. I have made a door on the 
side next the Meadow w^ Gives Entrance to a very good Cellar. 

I have made a large Piece of the additionall Garden to the 
Southward of the Present Garden & made albove a third of 
the Paling round it. As soon as my farme yard is finished I 
shall Employ my jobbers in Carrying & Elemoving the Super- 
fluous Earth from the Additionall Garden, when finished it 
will be a pretty Place. I have marked all the Places in the 
last years Wheat field where stops are to be made to fill up the 
Gullies in the field, w^ are very numerous & many of th"^ deep, 
without this Precaution and trouble th* field would be ruined. 
These jobs being done, the Gardeners & all the White men are 
to Carry on the Vineyard untill I return in the Spring, Tom 
the Ditcher & His son are stoneing & finishing the Coverd 
drains in the Meadow nigh the Milk House. I have began to 
take an Exact list of all the negroes on Doohoregan, As I do 
not Hear the Assembly is Broke up, I suppose the pTJper House 
has sent downe the inspection Law passed, & th* the Assembly, 
proceeds to do other Business. . . . 



290 



MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZISTE. 



Dec^ 3d 1773 [245] 

Charley/ 

I have j^^ of the 25*^ & 27*^^ past. I have order'd 6 Wood 
Cutters downe to morrow by vdiom I send this. I intend a 
Boy downe on Monday to know How you all doe, by whome I 
wiU write, if anything worth Communicating occurs between 
this & then. I wish the Clergy may Petition, I would give 
th"^ 4 s p'^ Pol & make the Act. to Continue for 21 years, w^ 
may induce the Present incumbents to accept th* Provision, 
should such an Act. pass the 40 p'^ Pol will be abolished. ' I 
would give the Officers for 7 years the Fees Established by the 
late inspection Law, saving Double Charges & Charges for Ser- 
vices not performed. But I would have a Clause in the Act 
makeing the sale of Ofl&ces Peaial & to oblige all officers to swear 
they have not purchased & th* they have not Payed nor will 
Pay any Sum or Aimuall gratuity for the Offices they hold. 
To Induce the officers to pass siKjh a Law, I would Continue it 
for ten years. A Separate Law to prevent the sale of Offices, 
I think will never be obtained, & if the Clause I suppc^e in the 
fee Bill, or a Separate Act be' not obtained, I would reduce the 
Tees so low, th* there should be no rooms for Riding. 

The weather has been very favourable to you, I saw I3ie 
Deputy Sherif the 29*^ Past, He tii* morning summoned Rob: 
Davis who Could not Attend, the same Day. Ho went to Ship- 
leys who was not at Home & was goeing to Oram, from this I 
think you Could not proceed to Lay downe y^ Preten&ions. The 
Sheriff shewed me the sunmKms, it was issued the 15*^ past, 
the sheriff was to Blame for not serving it sooner. I shall be 
glad to know the Steps taken by Worthington, & y'' opinion of 
the matter. I am glad to Hear you have made such good Crops 
of Com at the Island & at the Annapolis Quarter & th* you goe 
on so well with Garden wall & th* the stone Conies so fast 
to you. 

A letter sent to N'eale or Derrick, will by One of th™ be 
Conveyed to Wheeler, they serve a Congregation w^ He fre- 
quents. Ashton has not Communicated the Day of His de- 



EXTEA.CTS TKOM THE CAEEOLL PAPEKS. 



291 



parture, I ask Him do Questions, I liave no reason to suspect 
He wants an augmentation of Wages, if H© does He will be 
disappointed. As He Has propesed leaving me, I will not if 
any other Can l>e got, keep Him. As Molly desires it, I will 
be downe the 15*^ if fair, but if you iiave put of y^ Visit to 
Buchanan, Pray advise me, for in that Caee I sftiould Chuse 
to stay Here until the 20*^ or later. I thank you for the 
Oysters. I almost longed for them. I shall be glad to Hear 
the Inspection law is past & what the Houses are dodng. I 
have taken a very Exact Acc* of all the n^roes Here, I was 
Closely employed 5 mornings from Breakfast to Dinner & two 
long Evenings in Comparing the last with my present List, 
they Amount to 330 including the 3 Jobbers with you. .... 

jSTegroes as p^ List taken Dec. l^* 1773 . . 330 
Do as p^ List taken Dec. l^* 1767 . . 273 

Inerease in 6 years 57 



P. S. I just now Keceived a letter from M'^ Lewis w^ I 
will shew you. He Consents to M'^ Ashtons Removall to Porto- 
bacco & says Church shall be kept Here & at Annapolis once a 
ntonlii as fcamerly untill He can supply One Here. 



292 



MAEYLAIO) HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL MARYLANDEES 

McHenby Howabd. 
(Continued from Vol. XV, p. ISO.) 

5. Cheistophee and John Eousby. 

The two brothers, Christoplier and Jolin Eousby, make their 
appearance in the Marylcmd Archives about the same time and 
may have comte over together ; from what part of England is 
not known, but they had a brother, William Eousby, who was a 
" Citizen and Grocer ^ of London," as will be shown hereafter. 
The English Eousby arms in Papworth, Edmondson and other 
heraldric authorities are : Gules, on a 
bend argent, cotised or, three cross- 
crosslets sable. These have been the 
arms of the Maryland family. I am 
told that arms (no doubt the same), 
are on the tombstone of Christopher 
and John Eousby, and they (with- 
out tinctures now appearing,) are 
on the back of the beautiful tomb 
monuments in the Wye House grave- 
yard of Col. Edward Lloyd (1711-1770) and Anne Eousby, 
his wife, impaled with the Lloyd arms. There is at Wye House, 
Talbot Co., a large silver waiter, of the date 1754, with the 
above described (except that the bend is Or instead of argent) 
Eousby arms impaled with Lloyd. And Mrs. Eebecca Lloyd 
Shippen has an old Eousby silver tankard, with the date letter 
1724, which has the same Eousby arms (without tinctures?) 
with a mullet ^ for difference, crest a lion rampant and a motto 
" Vincet qui patitur." It came through the Lloyds. 

* Dealer in tea, sugar, spices, &c. Old dictionaries. 

* A five-pointed star or »piir rowel — signifying the 3rd son or "house." 




SOME BAKLY OOLOiriAL MAmYLANDEKS. 



293 



That Cliristoplier Rousby was in Calvert County^ Maryland, 
as early as 7 May 1669 appears from a mention of Mm of that 
date as selling Match Coats ^ to the Government (Archives of 
Maryland printed nnder direction of the Maryland Historical 
Society, Proceedings of the Assembly 1666-1676, page 197^). 
And on page 228 he is named in an Act passed at the same 
Session for the Payment of the Public Charges as one in Cal- 
vert County ^ to whom tobacco (money) is due — for what is not 
stated. 

On 6 October 1672 and on 6 June 1674 he is mentioned as 
being High Sheriff of Calvert County (Proceedings of the 
Council 1671-1681, pages 22, 39). 

In October 1678, a* the beginning of the Session, he appears 
as a Delegate for Calvert County to tibe Lower House of As- 
sembly, and his namie ii found throughout the proceedings of 
that October-jCsTov^ber Session (Proceedii^ of the Aai^My 
1678-1683, page 4 et seq.)- 

By an Act of Assembly passed at October-Kovember Session 
1683 he was appointed one of Commissioners to lay out Ports 
and Towns in Calvert Coimty (same volume, page 611). 

At what exact time Christopher Rousby was appointed the 
King's Collector of Customs for Patuxent District does not 
appear, but in a letter from Charles 3^^ Lord Baltimore dated 
28 April 1681 (Proceedings of the Council 1667-1687/8, page 
274 et seq.) he says that he himself had recomttnended Rousby 
" about five years since to the Commissioners to succeed me in 

* Match Coats are frequently mentioned diiring the Colonial period, par- 
ticularly as presents to Indians. 

* The first 16 volumes of the Maryland Archwes printed under the direc- 
tion of the Maryland Historical Society were not numTbered, but on a pre- 
liminary page of succeeding volumes numbers are assigned to these earlier 
volumes in their order of publication. 

* Calvert County as originally formed in 1654 (Proceedings of the Coun- 
cil 1636-1667, page 308) included land on the south and west sides of 
Patuxent Kiver, and so the home of Christopher Rousby, " Susquehannah 
Point," on the south side of the mouth of the river, lay within it. This 
land on the south and west aides of the Patuxmt went back to St. Mary's 
County in (Pi>ece«diB^ $mA iicts of AmtmMj 1€®3-1607^ page 212). 



294 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



that place (for in my father's time I was Collector for his 
Ma*^® here,)" and probably he was then appointed. But " for 
these Two years and better" (same letter) friction had been 
developing between them until Lord Baltimore in that and other 
letters miakes hitter charges against Rousby and urges that he 
be removed and " that he that is my Collector ® may have a 
Commission for the additional duty of a penny per pound." 
This letter of complaint was, on 30 June, referred by King 
Charles and his Privy Council to the Lords Commissioners of 
the Treasury for examination and report (page 280). Rou&by 
had left Maryland on 8 May 1681, as he had been intending, 
and crossed the ocean to England for a visit. In Loird(m he 
appeared in person before the Commissioners and submitted a 
long answer in writing, (pages 286, 288, 292 et seq.) in which 
he makes counter charges against Lord Baltknore of misgovern- 
ment of the Province and asserts that the object of his attempted 
removal was to make a place for one of Lord Baltimore's Sewell 
stepchildren. On 23 !N"ovember the Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury referred the matter to the Commissioners of the Cus- 
toms for examination and report with their opinion, who report 
on 15 December (page 308) that the charges are not sustained 
by proof, and the Lords Commissioners make a like report on 
23 January 1681/2, with an intimation that a Quo Warranto 
proceeding might justly be directed to have Lord Baltimore's 
Charter declared forfeited (page 305). 

After this the Maryland Archives are silent for a time about 
Christopher Bousby, but doubtless the bitter feeling between 
him and Lord Baltimore continued until it had a tragic ending. 
On 31 October 1684 Bousby was on the King's vessel the ketch * 
Quaker, then lying off his home, " Susquehannah Point," on 
the South side of the mouth of Patuxent Biver, when Colonel 
George Talbot, a kinsman of Lord Baltimore and first in the 
Council of Maryland, came on board. A violent quarrel ensued 
•and Talbot stabbed Bousby with a dagger so that he died (Pro- 

• Naval oflScer. ' On tobacco. 

» A ntnall maa <A war restftl, thea need ia the Bev^ue gervice. 



SOME EAELY COLaNIAL MAKYLAJiTDEBS. 295 

ceedings of tibe Council 1667-1687/8, page 427 et seq.). Cap- 
tain Allen, comlmander of the Qiiaker, put Talbot in irons and 
sent Rousby's body asbore to big borne next day (Proceedings 
of the Council 1681-1685/6, page 299 et seq.). Tbe Council 
of Maryland immediately demanded tbe surrender of Talbot for 
trial in Maryland, but Captain Allen refused, tbe demand being 
in tbe name of Lord Baltimore, tbe Proprietary, but said be 
would do so if tbe demand were made in tbe name of tbe King ; 
be probably distrusted tbe Maryland autborities. He carried 
Talbot to Virginia, wbicb was directly under royal government, 
claiming tbat Lord Effingbam, tbe Governor, was " bis Cbiefe 
Master in tbese parts " (same references). Tbe Council tbere- 
upon wrote to Governor Effingbam! requesting tbe delivery of 
tbe prisoner so tbat be migbt be tried wbere tbe murder was 
committed, but tbe Governor and Council of Virginia wrote to 
England for instructions and were directed by tbe King on 25 
February 1684/5 to send Talbot in tbe Quaker to England for 
trial there (same 2 volumes of Archives and pages and subse- 
quent pages.) Talbot meanwhile had been lodged in gaol in 
Gloucester Co., Va., and his wife with 4 men went in a shallop 
from Maryland and on 10 February 1684/5 effected his escape, 
probably by bribing the guard. The Maryland Council ordered 
a " Hhie and Cry " for his apprehension, but after lying con- 
cealed for a while at the bead of the Bay ® he gave himself up 
to the Maryland authorities, probably hoping to be tried in bis 
own Province (Proceedings of the Council 1681-1685/6, pages 
340 &c.). But cm 3 July 1685 Lord Baltimore wrote to the 
Council from London (page 410) directing that Talbot be sur- 
rendered to Lord Effingbam so tbat be migbt be sent to England 
in accordance with tbe King's mandate, and the Council so 

• A romantic tradition has come down that. Col. Talbot's hiding place 
while he was a fugitive in Maryland after his escape was on Palmer's 
Island, above th» mouth of the Susquehannah (now crossed overhead by 
the B. & 0. R. R.) and that he was partly supported by hawks or falcons 
which' he had trained. And some believed or suggested that an alleged 
peculiar breed of hawks frequenting that locality are descended from 
Talbot's purveyors. 



296 



MARYIjANT> HISTOEICAL MA©AZlirE. 



acted on 7 October (page 412). But on 13 October 1685 King 
James commissioned a Court of Oyer and Terminer in Virginia 
for tbe trial of sucb cases, before whicb Talbot was tried, con- 
victed on 24 April 1686, and sentenced to death (page 475 et 
seq.). Finally on 20 April 1687 Talbot produced to tbe Court 
King James's pardon, dated 9 September 1686 (page 481). 

Tbis murder, at a time of great political unrest, made a deep 
impression in Maryland and was no doubt injurious to Lord 
B&ltimore in tbe Province and in London. Tbe two volumes of 
tbe Archives referred to have many pages relating to it. And 
for years, almost until tbe Revolutionary War, tbe question 
wbetber by tbe murder (notwitbstanding tbe pardon) Talbot's 
landed property was not forfeited to Lord Baltimore, is dis- 
cussed at intervals in tbe Archives. 

Cbristopber Rousby did not outlive tbe day on wbicb be wa9 
stabbed by Col. Talbot. But be made a burried Will wbicb is 
recorded in Liber G (4) page 82 of tbe old Prerogative Court, 
(tbe records of wbicb are now in tbe Land Office, Annapolis) 
and an abstract is in Baldwin's Calendar of Maryland Wills, 
Vol. I, page 141. It is, patbetically, as follows : 

" I desire Litt tbe little boy Cbarles Boteler, Lett bim and 
bis beyres bave ye eleven bundred acres of Land yt belong 
to me att ye bead of Potuxon Riv'' called Crome and tbe 
rest to my brotber Jno Rousby. I ord"^ my brother John. 
Rousby to be my Extc'^ 

This 31 of Oetob^ 1684/ I give to Jno Paine and hm 
beyres " 500' acres of land in Chester Riv'^ called 
Rousby County and unto his beyres. I give to Jno 
Paine 6 cowes and 2 mlares. And my servt Chris- 
topher ye negro his freedome & 2 cowes. And I make 
my brother Jno Rousby my Extr 
Crod have mercy of my ioule 

Witness 

Edward Wade Chr. Rousby 

Henry Rickett 
Jno Loyde 



SOME IIABLT COLONIAI, MAEYIllNDEKS. 



On tlie ba(^ was thus written 

March ye 20*^ 1684 The within named Edward 
Wade, Henry Rickett and John Loyde witnesses to ye 
within written Will this day came before ide aboard of his 
Mag*y'^ Ketch ye Quaker & made oath on ye Holy Evan- 
gelist yt they saw ye within named Christopher Rousby 
signe the witliin written Will & declare & publish it to be 
his last Will & Testament. 

Sworne before me aboard of Edward Wade 

his Maggy's Ketch Quaker Henry Rickett 

sides Sam^ Bourne Jno Loyde " 

The single tombstone on the graves of Christopher and John 
Rousby, now one of the oldest known (decipherable) in Mary- 
land is in a field on the " Susquehannah Point " home of Chris- 
topher Rousby, now in St. Mary's County but then a part of 
old Calvert County, and a -copy of the inscription was made 
for me : -^^ 



Here lyeth the body of XPHb ROTJSBIE 
BSQTJIRE Who was taken out of this 
World by a violent Death receiv^ on 
Board his Majesty^ ship the Quaker 
Ketch CAP: Tho^ ALLEIT Conmnd^ 
the last day of Octo'^ 1684. 

And alsoe of JOHN" ROUSBIE 
his Birother who departed this 
iJsraturall Life on Board the 
SHIP BALTIMORE Being arrived 
in Patuxen River the first 
day of Edbruary 1685. 




" By Mx. W. H. Hellen of Calvert Co. 



298 



MABTLAKD HISTOBICAX, MAGAZINE. 



I am told that Eousbie arms are also om ikd stone (Bali. Sun- 
day News, April 1893.) 

Oiiristoplier Eousby appears not to have left children or wife. 
In the Land Office at Annapolis, in Deed Book T P. 'No. 4, 
page 1, there is recorded a copy of the Will of William Ronsby, 
" 'Citizen and Grocer of London," dated 2 March 1699, claim- 
ing a moiety of his brother Christopher's lands, 2100 acres, in 
Maryland, and devising it to his wife Anne, and with it is 
recorded a power of attorney from her about the lands. I do 
not know what was the outcome of the claim. 

JoHTiT Eousby, brother of Christopher, first appears in the 
Maryland Archives as being sworn as Clerk of the Upper House 
of Assembly on 2Y March 1671, being the first day of the Ses- 
sion (Proceedings of the Assembly 1666-1676, printed, page 
239), and these Proceedings show him so acting until at least 
17 October of the same year (page 318). At the next Session, 
beginning 19 May 1674 (after prorogations), the name of Rich- 
ard Boughton appears as Clerk (page 347). • 

On 6 September 1681 he appears as a Delegate to the Lower 
House of A^mbly, probably for Oalvert County (Proceedings 
of the AssCTibly 1678-1683, page 154), and these Proceedings 
show him as acting to 29 October 1683, ai^ Proceedings 1684- 
1692 ^ow to 24 April 1684. 

On 13 May 1682 he signs, as a Protestant with otibers, a 
Declaration defending Charles Lord Baltimore from accu^- 
ticms of partiality against Protestants in the administration of 
the Gov&mment (Proceedings of ihe Council 1667-1687/8, 
page 355. 

By an Act of Assembly passed at October-Korember Session 
1683, he was appointed one of Commissioners to lay out Ports 
and Towns in Talbot County (Proceedings of the Assembly 
1678-1683, page 611). His appointment for Talbot County 
was probably because his wife owned lands there. 

In May 1685 he made a visit to England (Proceedings of the 
Council 1667-1687/8, page 438 ; also Proceedings of the Coun- 
cil 1681-1686/6, page 454), and on his return died " a natural 
death " on Clipboard 1 February 1685/6, in the mouth of the 



Patuxent, where his brother Christopher had died " a violent 
death " fifteen months before ; see tombstone inscription, supra. 

J ohn Rousby married Barbara, daughter of Henry Morgan 
of Kent County; she married 2^^ on 13 July 1686 Captain 
Richard Smith of Calvert County. She had children by each 
marriage. An interesting episode of Mrs. Barbara Smith's life 
will be found in the Archives, Proceedings of the Council 
1687/8-1693, pages 118, 153; also in Davis's "Day Star," 
page 90. 

In his Will, made 8 May 1685, before leaving for England, 
proved 8 February 1685/6 and recorded in the Prerogative 
Court in Liber G4, page 164 (now in the Land Office), and 
an abstract of which is in Baldwin's Calendar^ Yol, i, page 15.9, 
he devises to his 3 children, John, Gertrude and Elizabeth, and 
desires that tiiey be brought up in ih& Protestant religion.^^ 
Of Gertrude nothing is known. Elizaheth married Richard 
Bemi«ftt, of Blenaett's Point, Queen Anne's County, said to be 
at his death in 1749 l3ie richest man in &e American Colonies, 
She died in 1'740' without isme. 

JoHW RoTJiSBY,^*^ the only son of J An and Barbara Rousby 
was bom befoi^ 8 May 1685 — ^the date erf his father's Will. 
He first appears in Maryland Arrhivm cm. 12 Beember 1707, 
on "wWeh day Governor Seymour announces to l3ie Council that 
he has appointed him IsTaval Officer of Patuxent to succeed 
George Plater, deceased. And on 18 Eebruary 1707/8 he if 
sworn in as !N'aval Officer and is also i^ppointed successor to 
Plater as the Queen's Receiver of Revenues for Patuxent Dis- 
trict, the latter being a royal office and this appointment being 
made in the emergency and to continue only " till further 
Direction from the Right Honble the Lord Treasurer " — in 
England (Proceedings of the Council 1698-1731, printed, 
Archives, Yol. xxv, pages 227, 235). And he soon succeeded 
to George Plater in another way, for the records of the Pre- 
rogative Court show John Rousby as husband of Anne, widow 

" Mrs. Barbara Eousby's sister, Frances, was, or on her marriage to Col. 
Peter S»yer had beooos^, a EoEoasn €fttik<^c. 

7 



300 



MARTLAIO) HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



and Administratrix of George Plater, deceased, st-ating Admin- 
istration Accounts on his estate in 1709 and 1711; see pre- 
ceding Burford and Plater articles in this series. 

Wlietlier lie was confirmed as Queen's Receiver or was con- 
tinuing to act under tlie temporary appointment (the power to 
appoint to the office seeming to he in the Surveyor General),-^ - 
does not appear, hut he made affidavits to his Accounts as 
Receiver hefore the Assemhly from time to time for some years. 
On 29 May 1719 the Governor tells the Upper House that the 
offices of Receivers of Revenue for the several ^Districts had 
first heen reduced to two, Potomac and Patuxent, and then the 
Potomac office had been abolished, leaving only Rousby Re- 
ceiver for Patuxent, whose office also he had recommended to 
be discontinued.^^ 

As ITaval Officer he proved his Accounts before the Council 
down to June 1717, But on 30 April 1718 Thomas Mac- 
nemara was I^aval Officer.^* The Council records are unfor- 
tunately very defective at this period, and later. But the 
Maryland Gazette says in its obituary notice of his son's death, 
as will be presently seen, that he (tiie father) was " Collector 
of his Majesty's Customs for the District of Patuxent." 

On 5 October 1714 Mr. John Rousby took his seat in the 
Lower House of the Assembly a Delegate for Calvert 
County.^* As Uiat part of the original Calvert County 
whidi was on the South and West sides of Patuxent Raver, in 
whidi part was the old Rousby home, " iSusqudbannah Point," 
had gome back in 1696 to St. Mary's County,^'' it is probable 
ttiat John Rousby had &i soia© time crossed the River and ^tab- 
li&hed his residence, "Rousby Hall," on IsTorth «ide of its 
mouth. The Archives (Proceedings and Acts of the Assembly) 
show that he sat as Delegate for OalTert County until 31 July 
1721." 

^ArcMves, Vol. xxx, p. 47. ^Archives, Vol. xxxjii, p. 330. 

" Archives, Vol. xxxm, p. 151. 
" Archives, Vol. xxtx, pages 452, 467 et seq. 
" 3 July 1654— Proceedings of the Council 1636-1664, p. 308. 
Archives, Vol. Xix, p. 212. " Archives, Vol. xxxtv, p. 233. 



SOME EARLY COLONIAL. MARYLANDEES. 



301 



Exactly when lie was appointed a Member of tlie Ooiincil 
does not appear, but he was present as a Member at a meeting 
on 13 October 1721.*® And the Archi/ves ^ow his attendance 
at Council meetings (with absences) down to 3 Augu»at 1737,*® 
and doubtless he was a Member to his death in 1744. At one 
meeting he is styled Maj^, at «11 otiier tim^ John Eoijsby, 
Eaquire. 

As to minor offices or public employments, in an Act passed 
in 1723 for the Encouragement of Learning and erecting 
Schools he was named as one of the Visitors for Calvert 
County,^* and on 18 June 1741 he was Agent for Calvert 
County for paying bounties to men enlisting in the war with 
Spain and expedition to Cartagena in South America (Lower 
House Journal — original) . 

He died in August 1744. In the typewritten Books of 
Abstracts of the " Calvert Papers " in the Maryland Historical 
Society, in Book 19, ]^o. 1120', is a reference to a letter dated 
23 August 1744, saying that " this morning news came of Mr. 
Eousby's death," and the following 'No. 1121, dated 28 August, 
mentions the appointment of a successor as Collector. These 
letters will probably be found on reference to them to be from 
Edmund Jenings, Member of the Council, to Lord Baltimore. 
He was probably buried at Kousby Hall, but a tombstone has 
not been found there. 

As before stated he married, before 1709, Anne, daughter of 
Attorney General Thomas Burford and widow of, first, Eobert 
Doyne and, second, of (Attorney General) George Plater. But 
she could not hate been tlie mother of John Rousby's children, 
who were born after 1720, and Dr. Christopher Johnston in- 
formed me that the Pterogative Court records at Annapolis 
showed that she died in 1717 moreoTear she would have been 
too old (see the preceding Burford and Plater articles). Who 
John Rousby's second wife wm has not been discovered. 

In his Win, dated 18 August 1744, proved 8 and 9 October 

^ Archives, Vol. xxv, p. 369. " Archives, Vol. xxvni, p. 126. 

'^Archives, Vol. xxxiv, p. 740. 



302 



MAETLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 



and recorded in Lib^ D D 2, page 5t 6 of tibe Prerogative 
Court Records (now in tbe Land CMSice), he names 3 children, 
John RoTisby (under ^1), Anne, wife of Col. Edward Lloyd 
(whose beautiful tomb monument in the Wye House graveyard 
has been mentioned)^ Elizabeth, wife of Major Abraham Barnes, 
of St. Mary's County and who is probably buried at " Tudor 
Hall," adjoining Leonardtown, and Gertrude Eousby, who in 
May or June 1746 (Maryland Qa&ette of 3 June) married 
Robert Jenkins Henry of Somerset County, afterwards Colonel 
and Member of the Council. To John he devised his 25 OO 
acres of Great Eltonhead Manor and 3 other tracts, 500 acres, 
in Calvert County; and to his daughters other large tracts in 
other counties. 

John Rotjsby ^"^^ had a brief career. The Maryland Gazette 
of 6 February 1751 has the following: 

» 

" Last week Died of violent Fever aged about 25 at his seat 
on Patuxent River in Calvert County, Mr. John Rousby, eldest 
son of the late Honorable John Rousby Esqr. Collector of his 
Majesty's Customs for the District of Patuxent, deceased, a 
Gentleman possessed of a very affluent fortune and many ami- 
able qualities, and whose death is much lamented. He has left 
a sorrowful widow and one child." 

His tombstone is at "Rousby Hall" with the following 
inscription : 

Here lies Interr'd the Body of 
M^ John Rousby (only son of 
the Hon^^e John Rousby Esq^) 
who departed this Life the 28*^ 
day of January Anno Domini 
1750 Aged 23 years 
and 10 months 

His Will, dated 2'7 Janu^y 1761 tnd proved 8 February 
1750 is recorded in the Prerogative Court Reccrds (in the 

" The dates of the Maryland Gazette and of the Will are New Style, ot 
the tombstone and proof of the Will are according to Old Style reckoning. 



I 



WILLIAM HAZLITT. 



303 



1 • 

Land Offiee) in Liber I> I> 6, page 538, and devises to his wife 
Ann and daughter Elizabeth. His wife was Ann Frisby, 
daughter of Peregrine IFrisby of Cecil County; she married 
2»d in January 17§2 (Mm-^mtd GmidM) €oL WilHam Fits- 
hugh from Virginia. 

Elizabeth Rousby — ^the last of the Rousby name in Mary- 
land — ^married on 19 July as his 2^^^ wife (Governor) 
George Plater. See Dr. Christopher Johnston " Plater Fam- 
ily " in the Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. ii^ page 3Y1. 

" Rousby Hall " was burned by a party from' a British ves^l 
in the Revolutionary War {Marylanhd Gazette). 



WILLIAM HAZLITT 



Reverend William Hazlitt, father of the author, of that 
name, who was brought up a Presbyterian, became a Unitarian 
minister. He came to America and was invited to be Presi- 
dent of Dickinson College, which was at that time under 
Presbyterian influence. He had prdbably not at that time left 
the Presbyterian ministry. 

William' Hazlitt, the author, writes in W. Carew Hazlitt's, 
Four Generations of a Literary Family, v. 1, pp. 26-28; 

" My father was invited to preach in Maryland. It was a 
township (as they call their scattered villages, where a field or 
two intervenes between every house). And here, in the midst 
of the forests, and at a distance from the cities on the coast, he 
found a respectable and polished society, with whom he would 
have been happy to spend his days, and they were very anxious 
to have him for their pastor. But on the second Sunday he 
was seized with the fever of that country, and fainted in the 
pulpit. Although he might himself, after so severe a season- 
ing, have been able to bear the climate, he feared to take his 
family there, and a stop was put to our being settled with a 
people so very suitable in many respects. I forget the name 



304 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



of the place, but to Mr. Earl and his family our everlasting 
gratitude is due. At this gentleman's house my father was 
hospita!bly entertained, and but far the great care and attention 
with which he was nursed he must have died. 

"ISTo thing could exceed the kindness with which they 
watched over him, even sending twenty miles for lemons and 
oranges for him, and providing him with every comfort. Two 
black men sat up with him every night, and he partly ascribed 
his recovery to a large draught of water that he prevailed on 
them to let him have, which, however, had been strictly for- 
bidden. For a long time his family were ignorant of his situ- 
ation, but at last Dr. Ewing and Mr. Davidson came to break 
the matter to my mother, who very naturally concluded he was 
dead, and it was some time before they could make her believe 
it was not the case. 

" At length she was convinced that he was recovering, and 
the next morning my brother John set off to go to him. He 
went alone on horseback. He rode through woods and marshes 
a hundred and fifty miles in fifty-six hours, over an unknown 
country, and without a guide. He was only sixteen at that 
time, and how he performed so difficult an enterprise aston- 
ished everyone who knew it. But he was wild with his fears 
for his father, and his affection for him made him regardless of 
every danger. He found him slowly recovering, but dread- 
fully weak, and after staying there some weeks they both re- 
turned together. How they got on I cannot think, but when 
they came to the door father could not get off his horse 
without help. It was iN'ovemiber, and the snow fell for the 
first time that day. My father was very ill and weak for a 
long time after his return. I recollect he looked very yellow, 
and sat by the fire wrapped in a great-coat, and taking Columbia 
root. The 23rd of this month we felt the shock of an eartii- 
quake." 

Where was this parish? Mr. Earl suggests Queen Anne's 
County. 



ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND 

Priblislied. "by aiztliority of tlie State 



VOLUME XXXIX 



TMs volume is now ready for distribution, and contains the Acts 
and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the Province, during 
the Sessions held from 1732/3 to 1736. During this period, Samuel 
Ogle was Governor, and he met difficult situations with tact and 
firmness. In 1733, a very important act was ps^ssed for emitting 
bills of credit, under which a considerable amount of paper money 
was issued, with such wise measures for the establishment of a 
sinking fund, that the bills were finally redeemed. An important 
militia act was passed, as also was one for the improvement of the 
navigation of the Patuxent River. Towns were erected at Elkridge 
Landing, on the site of Princess Anne, etc, A general law for the 
relief of insolvent debtors completes the important legislation of 
the Session. 

The Session of 1733/4 lasted only six days, when the Governor 
dissolved the Assembly, because the Lower House expelled four 
members, who had accepted office from the Proprietary. 

A year later, a new Assembly was convened without great change 
in the membership. It did the surprising act of electing Daniel 
Dulany, one of the expelled members, as its speaker, and, when 
he declined, chose James Harris, a new member, though Colonel 
John Mackall, the old speaker had been re-elected to the Assembly. 

A general naturalization law was then passed, and the importa- 
tion of negroes, "Irish Papists," and liquors was restricted. The 
act concerning ordinaries was revised, and a license was required 
from peddlars. A duty was laid for 'Uie pur(diase of arms and 
ammunition. 

In 1735/6 a second Session, styled a Convention, was held with- 
out any legislation, since the Houses fell out with each other, 
over the question of allowances to the Councillors. After a proroga- 
tion of ten days, the Houses re-assem^)led, and, in a short time, 
passed a considerable number of laws, some of which had been 
discussed at the earlier meeting. Among these, were acts to 
remedy the evil conditions of the Annapolis jail by building a new 
one, to erect Georgetown and Fredericktown on the Sassafras 
River, to encourage adventurers in iron works, and to amend the 
laws in regard to the inspection and sale of tobacco. The ques- 
tion as to the Councillors' allowances was settled by a compromise, 
and the disturbances along the Pensylvania boundary line, which 
are associated with the name of Captain Thomas Cresap, find echo 
in the legislative proceedings. 

The attention of members of the Society who do not now receive 
the Archives is called to the liberal provision made by the Legis- 
lature, which permits the Society to furnish to its own members 
copies of the volimies, as they are published from year to year, at 
the mere cost of paper, press work, and binding, this cost is at 
present fixed at one dollar, at which price members of the Society 
may obtain one copy of each volume published during the period 
of their membership. For additional copies, and for volumes pub- 
lished before they became members, the regular price of three dol- 
lars is chained. 



THE MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

INCQfRPOftATED 1843. 



OFFICERS. 

W. HALL HAMMB. 
Viee-Preeidmts, 

VAJT LEAK BLACK. 

Corresponding ^ecretwry, Recording Secretary, 

EIOHAUD H. SPENCER * GEORGE L. RAJXILIFFE. 

Treasurer, 
HEWARD E. BOYCE. 

THE COUNCIL. 

The General Officebs 
AND Representatives of Standing Committees: 

J. APPLETON WILSON, Representing the Trustees of the Athenaevim. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, 



EIOHARD M. DUVALL, 
PHILLIPS L. GOLBSBOROUGH, 
MoHENRY HOWARD, 
RUXTON M. EIDGELY, 
JAMES MoC. TRIPPE, 
BERNAiRD B. BROWNE, M. P. 



Conrmittee on PublieaticHi. 
Committee on the Library. 
Committee on Finance. 
Committee on Membership. 
Committee on the Gallery. 
Committee on Addresses. 
CoQMaittee on Genealogy. 



BENEFACTORS OF THE SOCIETY. 

1866. GEORGE PEA^ODY, Gift, $20,000 

1892. J. HENRY STIGKNEY, Bequest, .... 1,000 

1909. ISAAC F. NICHOLSON, Gift, ..... 1,000 

1915. MENDES COHEN, Bequest, .... 5,000 

1916. ISAAC HENRY FORD, Bequest, .... 1,000 

1916. ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, ..... Gift, 1,000 

1916. MRS. MARY WASHINGTON KEYSER, 

Gift of the H. Ir?in« Keys^ Memorial Building. 

1919. MISS ELEAJN"OR S. COHEN, . . Hiatori®«l Rdie« and |300 

1920. HON. HmRY STOCEBRIDGl, . Gift, .... 1,000 



♦Died, IMO. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

PBaiSBT^BKiAif BwwNTsmOB. Bemmrd C. Sterner, ... - 306 

Some Ea.ely Colonial Marylandees. McHenry Howard, - - 312 

lawm m Thomas ScsKmam. -Past Smmim. B4w§ri S. JMaj^ame, 3i4 

CONBAD Alexandre G^bakd. Elizabeth 8. Kite, - - - - 342 

Tbx Old Iitozan IUxad. PiMCT III. WUUmn B. Marye, - - 345 

6EVEK PiONi^s OF THE COLONIAL Ea^ebn Shobe. Percy G. 

Bhwvm, 395 

Pboceedinqs of the Society, 420 



Committee on Publication 

SAMUEL K. DENNIS, Chairman. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, BERNARD C. STEDTER. 

LOUIS H. DIELMAN, 
MMtor.